F322 - Module 1

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Hydrocarbons
Organic compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon only.
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Saturated hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with single bonds only.
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Unsaturated hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon containing both single, C-C, and double, C=C, bonds.
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Aliphatic hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains.
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Alicyclic hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure.
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Homologous series
A series of organic compounds with the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH2.
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Alkanes
The homologous series with the general formula CnH2n+2.
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Alkyl group
An alkane with a hydrogen atom removed, e.g. CH3, C2H5.
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Displayed formula
The relative positioning of all the atoms in a molecule and the bonds between them.
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Structural formula
The arrangement of atoms in a molecule.
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Skeletal formula
A simplified organic formula, with hydrogen atoms removed from alkyl chains, leaving just a carbon skeleton and associated functional groups.
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Structural isomer
Molecules with the same molecular formula but different structural formula.
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E/Z isomerism
A type of stereoisomerism in which different groups attached to each carbon of a C=C double bond may be arranged differently in space because of the restricted rotation of the C=C bond.
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Homolytic fission
The breaking of a covalent bond, with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom, forming two radicals.
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Radical
A species with an unpaired electron.
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Heterolytic fission
The breaking of a covalent bond with both of the bonded electrons going to one the atoms, forming a cation and an anion.
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Elimination reaction
The removal of a molecule from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule.
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Fractional distillation
The separation of the components in a liquid mixture into fractions which differ in boiling point by means of distillation, typically using a fractioning column.
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Cracking
The breaking down of long-chained saturated hydrocarbons to form a mixture of shorter-chained alkanes and alkenes.
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Catalyst
A substance which speeds up a reaction, but is chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction.
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Radical substitution
A type of substitution reaction in which a radical replaces a different atom or group of atoms.
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Initiation
The first step in a radical substitution in which the free radicals are generated by ultraviolet radiation.
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Propogation
The two repeated steps in radical substitution that build up the products in a chain reaction.
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Termination
The step at the end of a radical substitution when two radicals combine to form a molecule.
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Electrophilic addition
A type of addition reaction in which an electrophile is attracted to an electron-rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
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Carbocation
An organic ion in which a carbon atom has a positive charge.
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Polymer
A long molecular chain built up from monomer units.
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Monomer
A small molecule that combines with many other monomers to form a polymer.
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Addition polymerisation
The process in which monomers add on to a growing polymer chain one at a time, to form a very long saturated molecular chain.
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Addition polymer
A very long molecular chain, formed by repeated addition reactions of many monomers.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A hydrocarbon with single bonds only.

Back

Saturated hydrocarbon

Card 3

Front

A hydrocarbon containing both single, C-C, and double, C=C, bonds.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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