F215 Definitions

Gene
A length of DNA that codes for one or more polypeptides.
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Genetic code
The sequence of bases on the coding strand of DNA, which carries instructions for the synthesis of polypeptides.
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Allele
A version of a gene.
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Locus
The position of a gene on a chromosome.
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Phenotype
The observable characteristics of an organism.
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Genotype
The combination of alleles possessed by an organism.
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Dominant
The characteristic in which the allele responsible is expressed in the phenotype even in those with heterozygous genotypes.
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Codominant
Alleles are codominant if they are both expressed in the phenotype.
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Recessive
A recessive allele is only expressed in the absence of a dominant allele.
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Linkage
Genes for different characteristics that are present at different loci on the same chromosome are linked.
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Reproductive cloning
The cloning of whole organisms.
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Non-reproductive cloning
Uses stem cells in order to generate replacement cells, tissues or organs which may be used to treat particular diseases or conditions in humans.
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Recombinant DNA
DNA combined from two sources.
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Genetic engineering
The extraction of genes from one organism, or the manufacture of genes, in order to place them in another organism (often of a different species) such that the receiving organism expresses the gene product.
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Gene therapy
The use of genetic technologies to treat genetic disorders.
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Ecosystem
All the living organisms in a particular area and all the non-living abiotic factors.
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Biotic factors
The living features of the ecosystem e.g predators, food.
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Abiotic factors
The non-living features of the ecosystem e.g temperature, pH, mineral content.
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Producers
Autotrophic organisms that convert light energy to chemical energy by fixing carbon to produce organic molecules.
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Consumers
Organisms that feed on other living organisms.
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Decomposers
Organisms that feed on dead organic matter, releasing molecules, minerals and energy that then becomes available to other living organisms in that ecosystem.
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Trophic level
A stage in a food chain.
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Carrying capacity
The maximum population size that can be maintained over a period of time in a particular habitat.
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Intraspecific competition
Happens between individuals of the same species.
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Interspecific competition
Happens between individuals of different species.
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Conservation
Involves the active management of ecosystems.
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Preservation
Leaves ecosystems undisturbed.
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Tropism
A directional growth response in which the direction of the response is determined by the direction of the external stimulus.
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Learned behaviour
The behaviour is changed by experience. The experience is remembered and the behaviour is reinforced.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The sequence of bases on the coding strand of DNA, which carries instructions for the synthesis of polypeptides.

Back

Genetic code

Card 3

Front

A version of a gene.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The position of a gene on a chromosome.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The observable characteristics of an organism.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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