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Adhesion
Force of attraction between molecules of two different substances
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Affinity
An attractive force between subtances or particles
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Alveoli
Small air sacs in the lungs
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Amylose
Part of a starch molecule consisting of many thousands of glucose residues bonded together
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Anaphase
In mitosis the stage when the newly separated chromatids are pulled towards opposite poles of the nuclear spindle
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Apoplast pathway
The route taken by water between the cells or through the cell walls in a plant
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Asexual reproduction
The production of genetically identical new organisms by a single 'parent' organism
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Atrioventricular node (AVN)
A patch ot tissue in the septum of the heart that conducts the electrical stimulus from the atria in the heart through to the Purkyne fibres
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Atrioventricular valves
Valves between the atria & ventricles that prevent backflow of blood
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Atrium
One of the upper chambers in the heart
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Bohr shift/Bohr effect
The effect of carbon dioxide concentration on the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen
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Bronchi
Airways in the lungs that lead from the bronchi to the alveoli
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Cambium
Plant tissue in the stern & root that contains dividing cells
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Carbaminohaemoglobin
The molecule resulting from combination of carbon dioxide haemoglobin
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Cardiac cycle
The sequence of events making up one heartbeat
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Caediac muscle
The muscle found in the heart. It has its own intrinsic heartbeat (it is myogenic)
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Carrier protein
A protein found in membranes which is capable of carrying a specific moleclue or ion through the membrane by active transport
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Cartilage
A flexible slightly elastic connective tissue
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Cartilage ring
A flexible ring of cartilage that holds the airways open
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Casparian strip
A strip of waterproof material (suberin) in the cell walls of root endodermis cells it blocks the apoplast pathway
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Cell signalling
Processes that lead to communication & coorination between cells. Hormones binding to their receptors on the cell surface membrane are an example
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Centriole
An organelle from which the spindle fibres develop during cell division in animal cells
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Centromere
The region of a chromosome where two sister chromatids are joined together & where the spindle fibre attaches during cell division
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Channel protein
A protein pore that spans a membrane through which very small ions & water soluble molecules may pass
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Chloride shift
The movement of chioride ions into red blood cells to balance the loss of hydrogencarbonate ions
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Chloropyll
Pigments found in chloroplasts of plant (& some protoctist) cells. Each molecule consists of a hydrocarbon tail & a porphyrin ring head with a magnesium atom. Chlorophll absorbs red & blue light trapping the energy & reflets green light
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Chloroplast
An organelle found in plants which contains chlorophyll & is responsible for photosynthetic activity in the plant
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Cholesterol
Alipid molecule (not a triglyceride) found in all cell membranes & involved in the synthesis of steriod hormones
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Chromatid
A replicated chromosome appears as two identical strands in early stages of cell division. Each strand is a chromatid
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Chromatin
Material staining cark red in the nucleus during interphase of mitosis & meiosis. It consists of nucleic acids & proteins. Chromatin condenses into chromosomes during prophase of nuclear division
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Chromosome
A linear DNA molecule wrapped around histone proteins found in the nucleus. Chromosomes become visible in prophase of cell division
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Cilia
Short extensions of eukaryotic cells typically 2-10 pm long & 0.25pm in diameter. They may be used for locomotion or to move fluids or mucus over a surface for example in the mammalian respiratory tract
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Ciliated epithelium
Epithelial cells that have cilia on their cell surface
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Clonal selection
The selection of cells (of the immune system) with a specific receptor site. These cells will undergo clonal expansion as part of the immune response
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Clones
Genetically identical cells or individuals
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Cohesion
The attraction between water molecules due to hydrogen bonding
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Collagen
A structural fibrous protein found in connective tissue bones skin & cartilage. It accounts for 30% of body protein
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Companion cell
A cell in the phloem involved in actively loading sucrose into the sieve tube elements. The companion cell is closely associated with a phloem sieve element to which it is linked by many plasmodesmata
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Concentration gradient
The difference in concentration of substance between two regions
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Connective tissue
A type of tissue that consists of separate cells held together by a ground substance (matrix)
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Constrict
To make narrow.
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Coronary arteries
Arteries that carry blood to the heart muscle
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Cortex
Tissue in plant roots & stems between epidermis & vascular tissue
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Cytokinesis
Horome like proteins produced by vertebrate (including mammalian) cells which are used for communication between cells allowing some cells to regulate the activities of others
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Cytokinesis
The division of the cell following nuclear division to form two new cells
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Cytoskeleton
The network of protein fibres & microtubules found within the cell that gives structure to the cell & is responsible for the movement of many materials within it
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Deoxgenated
Bloos with haemoglobin that carries no or little oxygen
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Diastole
The period when the heart muscle in the ventricles is relaxing & blood pressure is at its lowest
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Differentiation
The development & changes seen in cells as they mature to form specialised cells
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Diffusion
The net movement of molecules or ions in a gas or liquid from an rea of high concentration to an area where they are less concentrated
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Diffusion gradient
The gradient in molecular concentration (the difference in concentrations) that allows diffusion to occur
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Dilate
To make wider. For example vasodilation is when the lumens of blood vessels become wider
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Dissociation curve (oxyhaemoglobin)
The curve on a graph showing the proportion of haemoglobin that is saturated with osygen at different oxygen tensions
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Division of labour
Any system where different parts perform specialised functions each contributing to the functioning of the whole
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Double circulatory system
A transport system in which blood travels twice through the heart for each complete circulation of the body
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Double helix
Describes the structure of DNA a twisted helix of two strands with bases joining the strands
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Elastic fibres
Long fibres for the protein elastin that have the ability to stretch & recoil
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Elastic tissue
Tissue containing the protein elastin which is able to stretch & recoil
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Electrocardiogram
Trace (graph) showing the electrical activity of the heart muscle (atria & ventricles) during a cycle
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Emulsion
A suspension of one material in another as droplets because it does not dissolve
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Endocytosis
The process of taking materials into a cell by which then piches off to form a vesicle inside the cell This is an active process requiring ATP
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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
A series of membrane bound flattened sacs extending from the outer nuclear membrane through the cytoplasm.
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Endothelium
A tissue that lines the inside of a struture such as a blood vessel
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Epidermis
Outer layer(s) of cells of a multicellular organism.
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Epithelium
A tissue that covers the outside of a structure
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Erythrocytes
Red blood cells
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Eukaryotic cells
Cells that
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Card 2

Front

An attractive force between subtances or particles

Back

Affinity

Card 3

Front

Small air sacs in the lungs

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Part of a starch molecule consisting of many thousands of glucose residues bonded together

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

In mitosis the stage when the newly separated chromatids are pulled towards opposite poles of the nuclear spindle

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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