F211 - Biology A level

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- state the resolution and magnification that can be achieved by a light microscope,a transmission electron microscope and a scanning electron microscope
Light microscope - 200nm/x1400. TEM - 0.5nm/x300 000. SEM - a little over 0.5nm/x300 000
1 of 10
-explain the difference between magnification and resolution
magnification is the ratio between the size of an object and its image. and resolution is the ability to see detail, an image of a cell is formed in a light microscope when light is focused on in an electron microscope when electrons are focused.
2 of 10
-explain the need for staining samples for use in light microscopy and electron microscopy
to see cell structures you must add a stain because most biological materiall is transparent, some simple stains include, methylene blue used to stain the nuclei blue and iodine solution used to stain starch grains black
3 of 10
calculate the linear magnification of an image
use the magnification formula - magnficatiion = length of drawing or photograph / length of object
4 of 10
describe and interpret drawings and photographs of eukaryotic cells as seen under an electron microscope and be able to recognise the following structures; nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear envelope, RER and SER, golgi apparatus, ribosomes, mitochondria,
lysosomes, chloroplasts, plasma membrane, centrioles and flagella and cillia
5 of 10
outline the functions of the structures listed in card 5
mitochondria - aerobic respiration ; chloroplasts - photosynthesis ; Nucleus - Contains the genetic information in DNA of chromosomes ; Nucleolus - Production of Ribosomes ; Ribosomes - Amino acids assembled to make proteins ; RER - site for ribosome
6 of 10
transports proteins to golgi apparatus ; SER - makes tryglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol ; Golgi apparatus - modifies and packages proteins, makes secretory vesicles and lysosomes ; Lysosomes - Conrtains enzymes for destroying worn out parts
of cell and food particles ; Centriole - assembles microtubules for the cytoskeleton and to form the spindle to move chromosomes when nuclei divide ; cillia - moves liquids or materials along tubes (eg mucus along the trachea)
7 of 10
Outline the interrelationship between the organelles involved in the production and secretion of proteins
NUCLEOLUS produces RIBOSOMES which are amino acids which assmeble to make proteins, the RER is a site for the RIBOSOMES to transport the proteins to the GOLGI APPARATUS, the GOLGI APPARATUS modifies and packages the proteins and makes secretory vesi
8 of 10
explain the importance of cytoskeleton in providing mechanical strength to cells, aiding transport within cells and enabling cell movement
microtubules and microfilaments make up the cytoskeleton that supports animal cells, moves organelles around eukaryotic cells and moves cytoplasm for example during cell migrations in development, phagocytosis and cytokinesis.
9 of 10
compare and contrast, with the aid of diagrams and electron micrographs the structure of prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells
prokaryotic cells consist of a CELL WALL; PILLI AND FLAGELLA, a eukaryotic cell contains a nucleus a cell wall ( only in plants ) mitochondria, chloroplasts ( only in plants ) a golgi apparatus, a RER and SER a vacuole, cillia
10 of 10

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

magnification is the ratio between the size of an object and its image. and resolution is the ability to see detail, an image of a cell is formed in a light microscope when light is focused on in an electron microscope when electrons are focused.

Back

-explain the difference between magnification and resolution

Card 3

Front

to see cell structures you must add a stain because most biological materiall is transparent, some simple stains include, methylene blue used to stain the nuclei blue and iodine solution used to stain starch grains black

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

use the magnification formula - magnficatiion = length of drawing or photograph / length of object

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

lysosomes, chloroplasts, plasma membrane, centrioles and flagella and cillia

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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