Exploring social inequality and difference -2- Gender

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Gender Inequalities
Topic 2
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The legal side (Acts)
1970: Equal Pay Act 1975: Sex Discrimination Act 2003: 2 weeks paid paternity leave and maternity leave extended from 14 to 18 weeks.
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Seager (1997) - Feminist
Studied time spent by men and women on different tasks. Found that men spent longer on paid work and women spent more time on domestic work. Men had more time to rest than women.
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Dermott (2006)
Men are more likely than women to work full time or be self-employed . This is changing and employment status between men and women are reducing. Men have also been found to work loger hours than women even if they have the status as a father too.
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Parsons (1955) - Functionalist
Women play an 'expressive' role and men play an 'instrumental' role. These differences are innate and ascribed at birth. They help contribute to a smooth-running society (Organic Analogy).
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Oakley (1974) - Radical Feminist
Gender roles are socially constructed. She disagrees with Parsons' view because: differences are not ascribed at birth; his view is very subjective - he is a male academic and gendered roles, homemakers and breadwinners, were probably convenient.
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Beechey (1976) - Marxist Feminist
Points out that women are less likely to join a trade union and women accept lower wages because work is just supplementing their husband's wages.
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Beechey (1976) - Marxist Feminist CRITICISMS
Theory is a bit dated.
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Engels (1972) - Marxist
Men gained control over women when they initialy bought private property. This is because of hereditary rights (inheritance) and because of historical events which meant private property had be lost because monogamous relationships were not kept.
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Barron and Norris (1976) - Weberian
Dual Labour Market Theory: There are two labour markets: The Primary Labour Market, characterised by good pay, job security and opportunities for promotion (men); The Secondary Labour Market, which is less secure (women).
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Friedan (1963) - Liberal Feminist
Doesn't want to extend women's rights past those of men, but bekieves that gender inequalities is a product of general inequality. They do not blame indiividuals for this, but aim to raise awareness of this and remove these barriers.
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Benston (1972) - Marxist Feminist
Women are used to benefit Capitalist society (reserve army of labour, contribution of domestic labour) and the Capitalist state reinforce this by using the ideology of the nuclear family.
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Hartmann (1981) - Feminist
Argues that neither patriarchy or economics alone can explain gender inequality (dual systems theory). Men have controlled women for many reasons (economic benefits e.g. maternity and paternity rights, or differences in access to income and wealth).
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Firestone (1971) - Radical Feminist
The source of inequality and patriarchy is biological differences, such as the woman's ability to give birth.
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Walby (1990) - Feminist
Patriarchy is not a universal term that can be in all places at any time. Patriarchy exists because of the assumption that men will try to oppress women (they do not and cannot always do this in the same way and with success).
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Walby (1990) - Feminist Continued
There are 3 different areas where patriarchy exists: paid work, the state and cultural institutions (e.g. media, religion, education etc.)
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Black Feminism
Race and ethnicity are hidden dimensions of inequality. Feminists experiences are based on white, middle-class women writing about their own lives.
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Third-Wave Feminism
Different views: 1) Battle between men and women has changed. 2) Do they want the place as primary carers and equality in the workplace? 3) Feminism has gone too far. Men are as disadvantaged as women.
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Hakim (2000)
Preference Theory: Women exersise choice in their position in the home and in the workplace. Men may be earning more money, so women think it's a rational choice to stay at home.
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Hakim (2000)
Preference Theory: Identified 3 types of women: 1) Work-centred women 2) Home-centred women 3) Adaptive group (60% of women) - Combined paid work with childrearing.
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Hakim (2000) CRITICISMS
It could be argued that no decision is made out of the context of structures. Working class girls, for example, have less choice in their decisions.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

1970: Equal Pay Act 1975: Sex Discrimination Act 2003: 2 weeks paid paternity leave and maternity leave extended from 14 to 18 weeks.

Back

The legal side (Acts)

Card 3

Front

Studied time spent by men and women on different tasks. Found that men spent longer on paid work and women spent more time on domestic work. Men had more time to rest than women.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Men are more likely than women to work full time or be self-employed . This is changing and employment status between men and women are reducing. Men have also been found to work loger hours than women even if they have the status as a father too.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Women play an 'expressive' role and men play an 'instrumental' role. These differences are innate and ascribed at birth. They help contribute to a smooth-running society (Organic Analogy).

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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