Exercise Physiology

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Homeostasis
maintenance of a constant and normal internal environment
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Steady State
Physiological variable unchanging but not always normal, balance between demand and response
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Bioenergetics
flow and exchange of energy within a living system, conversion of food stuffs into energy
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Anabolic
synthesis
4 of 149
Catobolic
breakdown
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Metabolism
sum of all chemical reactions
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Lactate Threshold
point at which blood lactate rises systematically during incremental exercise
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Hypoxia
low muscle o2
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Neurocrine
release hormone near another cell
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Paracrine
secretions have effect on adjacent cells
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Autocrine
hormone realease has positive feedback on cell
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Classical
Endocrine System
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Non-classical
Fat-tissue
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Adrenal Medulla
secretes catecholamines
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Adrenal Cortex
secretes steroid hiormones
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Cortisol
maintenance of plasma glucose
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Resting Membrane potential
-70mv
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Action Potential
When stimulus of significant strength depolarises the cell
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Neuromuscular Junction
Interface between the end of a myelinated motor neuron and muscle fibre
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Golgi Tendon Organ
monitors tension developed in muscle and prevents muscle damage during excessive force generation
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Autonomic Nervous System
Responsible for maintaining internal environment
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Sympathetic
releases noradrenaline, excites an effector organ
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Parasympathetic
releases ACh, inhibits effector organ
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Epimysium
surrounds entire muscle
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Perimysium
surrounds bundles of muscle fibers (fascicles)
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Endomysium
surrounds individual muscle fibres
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External lamina
just below endomysium
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Sarcolemma
muscle cell membrane
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Myofibrils
contain contractile proteins Actin and Myosin
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Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
storage for calcium
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Transverse tubules
from sarcolemma to reticulum
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Satellite Cells
role in muscle growth
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Isometric
exerts force without changing length
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Concentric
shortens during force production
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Eccentric
produces force but length increases
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Muscle Twitch
Contraction as result of a single stimulus
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Motor Unit
consists of fibres of 1 type
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flexibility
range of motion at a joint
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Osteoporosis
loss of bone mineral densityLord
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Lordosis
forward concave curve of the spine
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Scoliosis
abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
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Fatigue
fail to maintain required/exerted force
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End Diastolic Volume
amount of blood collected in ventricle in diastole
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End Systolic Volume
amount of blood remaining in ventricle after contraction
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Cardiac Output
amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in 1 minute
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Preload
amount ventricles are stretched by contained blood
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Contractility
cardiac cell contractile force due to factors other than EDV
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Afterload
back pressure exerted by blood in large arteies leaving heart (aorta)
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Arterial Hypoxaemia
lower than normal O2 content in arterial blood
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Normoxia
O2 levels in air at atmospheric pressure at sea level
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Hyperoxia
higher O2 levels in air than normoxia
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Hypoxia
lower O2 levels in air than normoxia
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Normoxaemia
O2 levels in arterial blood when breathing normoxic air
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Normocapnia
CO2 levels in air at atmospheric pressure at sea level
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Breath-holding
Voluntary/conscious suppression of breathing
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Autoregulation
intrinsic myogenic responses of smooth muscle
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Metabolic regulation
blood flow increase in relation to metabolic activity of tissue organ
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Paracrine regulation
signals from cells close to target cell
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Muscle Pump
Mechanical compression and relaxation of muscles on venous vessels
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Metabolic factors 1
low O2
60 of 149
Metabolic factors 2
acid conditions
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Metabolic factors 3
lactate
62 of 149
Metabolic factors 4
potassium
63 of 149
Metabolic factors 5
Adenosine
64 of 149
Metabolic factors 6
ATP
65 of 149
Metabolic factors 7
Osmolarity
66 of 149
Pattern of flow depends on (1)
active vasodilation
67 of 149
Pattern of flow depend on (2)
mechanical compression
68 of 149
Factors that affect blood flow to skeletal muscle 1
Method used
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Factors that affect blood flow to skeletal muscle 2
Force of muscle contractions
70 of 149
Factors that affect blood flow to skeletal muscle 3
Type of contraction
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Factors that affect blood flow to skeletal muscle 4
Muscle fibre type composition
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Brain Blood Flow Regulator 1
Metabolic
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Brain Blood Flow Regulator 2
Autoregulatory
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Brain Blood Flow Regulator 3
Neurogenic
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Brain Blood Flow Regulator 4
Chemical
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Brain Blood Flow Regulator 5
Systemic
77 of 149
Influence BBF 1
ANS
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Influence BBF 2
Baroreflex
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Influence BBF 3
Systemic Circulation
80 of 149
Influence BBF 4
Cerebral autoregulation
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Measure BBF 1
Transcranial Doppler
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Measure BBF 2
Near-infrared Spectroscopy
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Measure BBF 3
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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Acid
Molecule that can liberate H+
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Base
Molecule capable of combining with H+
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pH
expression of H+ in solution
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Alkalosis
reduction in H+ ions
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Regulation of Acid-Base Balance 1st Line (1)
Cellular Buffers
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Regulation of Acid-Base Balance 1st Line (2)
Blood Buffers
90 of 149
Regulation of Acid-Base Balance 2nd Line
Respiratory Compensation
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Ventilation limit O2 uptake? (1)
voluntarily hyperventilate
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Ventilation limit O2 uptake? (2)
additional anaerobic exercise raises ventilation
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Ventilation limit O2 uptake? (3)
performance doesn't improve with Helium/O2 mixture
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Eccentric Hypertrophy
overall size and volume enlarged
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Concentric Hypertrophy
increase wall thickness but diminished volume
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Peripheral Circulatory Adaptations (1)
Increase size of large arteries
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Peripheral Circulatory Adaptations (2)
Arterial distensibility
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Peripheral Circulatory Adaptations (3)
size of small arteries/arterioles
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Peripheral Circulatory Adaptations (4)
Number of small arteries/arterioles
100 of 149
Peripheral Circulatory Adaptations (5)
number of capillaries
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Angiogenesis
formation of new blood vessels
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Short term Altitude effects (1)
more O2 molecules
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Short term Altitude effects (2)
Ventilation changes - Hyperventilation
104 of 149
Short term Altitude effects (3)
Cardiovascular changes - increase RHR and CO
105 of 149
Long term Altitude effects (1)
Pulmonary acid-base
106 of 149
Long term Altitude effects (2)
CV - increase HR, decrease SV,CO and Max CO
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Long term Altitude effects (3)
Haemtologic - decrease plasma volume, increase haemoglobin & RBC number
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Long term Altitude effects (4)
Local - increase skeletal muscle capillarisation and O2 enzyme activity
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Conduction
heat transfer through direct contact
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Convection
heat transfer between object and moving air or fluid
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Radiation
loss or gain of heat in form of electromagnetic waves
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Evaporation
quantity of heat absorbed by sweat when it evaporates
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Body's thermostat
Hypothalamus
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Heat Injury Factors 1
Increase fitness lower risk
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Heat Injury Factors 2
Acclimatisation - decreases body temp.
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Heat Injury Factors 3
Hydration - lack of increases risk
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Heat Injury Factors 4
Environmental temp.
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Heat Injury Factors 5
Clothing - expose as much skin as possible, increase coo
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Heat Injury Factors 4
Environmental temp.
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Heat Injury Factors 5
Clothing - expose as much skin as possible, increase cooling
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Heat Injury Factors 6
Humidity - higher more risk
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Heat Injury Factors 7
Metabolic Rate
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Heat Injury Factors 8
Wind - increases heat loss
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Limiting factors in aerobic exercise 1
cellular machinery to oxidise fuel continuously and produce force
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Limiting factors in aerobic exercise 2
supply of fuel
126 of 149
Limiting factors in aerobic exercise 3
supply of O2 to and from bloodstream
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Limiting factors in aerobic exercise 4
Removal of waste products and excess heat
128 of 149
Limiting factors in aerobic exercise 5
Maintenance of pH
129 of 149
Strategies to simulate microgravity 1
Head-down bed rest
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Strategies to simulate microgravity 2
Wheelchair
131 of 149
Strategies to simulate microgravity 3
Immobilization
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Strategies to simulate microgravity 4
Parabolic flight
133 of 149
Vasodilator substance - cause functional hyperaemia 1
Nitric Oxide
134 of 149
Vasodilator substance - cause functional hyperaemia 2
Adenosine
135 of 149
Vasodilator substance - cause functional hyperaemia 3
Tissue Hypoxia
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Vasodilator substance - cause functional hyperaemia 4
Prostaglandins
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Vasodilator substance - cause functional hyperaemia 5
Viagra
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Vasodilator substance - cause functional hyperaemia 6
Potassium
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Vasodilator substance - cause functional hyperaemia 7
ATP Breakdown products
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Neurotransmitter of SNS
Acetylcholine
141 of 149
Neurotransmitter of SNS 2
norepinephrine
142 of 149
Neurotransmitter of PNS
Acetylcholine
143 of 149
Ventilatory Threshold
ventilation increases at a faster rate than VO2
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mechanisms behind ventilatory threshold 1
feedforward
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mechanisms behind ventilatory threshold 2
plasma potassium concentration
146 of 149
mechanisms behind ventilatory threshold 3
acidosis
147 of 149
mechanisms behind ventilatory threshold 4
feedback
148 of 149
factors affecting ROM
Age, Gender, Heredity, Posture,Disease
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Card 2

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Physiological variable unchanging but not always normal, balance between demand and response

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Steady State

Card 3

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flow and exchange of energy within a living system, conversion of food stuffs into energy

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

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synthesis

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Card 5

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breakdown

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