Respiratory systems anatomy and physiology

  • Created by: Louisa
  • Created on: 04-10-19 15:07
The respiratory system is the need for
Air by higher life forms , allowing gaseous exchange between air and bloog
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The Cardiovasucular system allows for...?
The transport of gases between lungs and tissue cells of the body using blood as a transport mechanism
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What are the 2 processes that respiration includes
Ventilation - air in and out of lungs. Gas exchange - air in lungs to blood and blood to tissues, allowing transport of o2 and co2
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Functions of respiratory systems
allows movement, area for gas exchange, produce sound, protect, homestatic control
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The anatomy of the upper respiration system includes
Nose, Nasal cavity, Paranasal sinus, Phargnx
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The anatomy of the lower respiration system includes
Trachea, bronchi, bronchiole, alveoli
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What is the difference in bronchial tubes between an asthmatic and non asthmatic
In an asthmatic the bronchial tubes tighten and thicken. the air passage becomes inflamed and mucous filled, making it difficult for air to move through the passage
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Deoxygenated blood comes from ... via the and back out via
From the right ventricle via the pulmonary artery and back out via the pulmonary vein
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Oxygenated blood comes from ... via the...
Left ventricle via the aorta
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The visceral pleura covers
The lung itself
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the parietal pleura covers
The mediastinum and chest wall
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A thin fluid layer between pleura, allows for
negative pressure and pressure differnces from top to bottom
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Analogy of this is a zip lock bag in water - explain this
If you placed a zip lock bag in water and emptied it, the 2 sides would touch. if we then close the seal the 2 sides would not be able to be pulled apart
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What is a pneumothorax
Loss of the bond between the pleura
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4 Typesof Pneumothorax
Spontaneous - e.g. young, healthy, skinny tall men or asthmatics, Traumatic, e.g. stab wound , open, and tension - if one lung collaspes and pushes the others lung
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Will every pneumothorax need medical help
no, some will heal themselves
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What is a heamothorax
Blood in the pleura
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what is the parasympathetic response
constricts airway
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what is the sympathetic reponse
dialates airway
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the parasympathetic and sympatheic repsonse contols what
the smooth muscle in the wall of the airway and the blood vessels and mucous secreting glands. also provide sensory input to the CNS to reflex pain loop via type C fibrea
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What is boyles law
pa = 1/v - basically if an external pressure decreases then the volume will increase
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Inspiration results in what to volume and pressure
An increase in volume in the lungs, so a decerase in pressure
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Expiration results in what to volume and pressure
A decerase in volume in the lungsm so a increase in pressure
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What is the diaphragm and where is it?
a sheet of muscle which seperates the thorax from the abdomen. it is attached to the lower edge of the rib cage and bulges into the throax
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Each 1/2 of diaphragm is supplied by what nerve
Phrenic (c3, 4,5)
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What distance does the diaphagm move
1-2 cm at rest and 10 cm when vigourous
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During quiet breathing what occurs to prevent fatigue
Only some muscle fibres contract and segmental nerves stiffen chest wall, preventing sucking in of the chest wall
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Compliance of ventilation is determined by 2 main components
Lungs and thoracic cage
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The compliance affects what?
the amount of energy you use to ventilate
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Healthy individuals will use what percentage of total energy for breathing? and Diseased?
5% and 20%
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What causes the increase of energy use for disease?
Due to a lack of compliance or increased resistance, this is because you have to use energy to breathe in and out, rahter than just in.
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Lung compliance is defined by the measure of... and can be affect by which 2 things
the ease with which the lungs may be inflated. Elastic fibres in the tissues. Surface tension collapsing force at gas/liquid inteface in alveoli
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An xray of emphysema should show what
White patches That aren't bone or the heart
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Ventilation is defined as
air flow into the lungs
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TV (tidal volume) is what
the air that goes into the lungs in each breath at 500ml
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Define anatomical dead space
Though air goes into the conducting passage and alveoae, the last 150 ml does not participate in gaseous exchange becuase it doesn't go into the alveola.
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Alveolar ventilation =
Alveolar ventilation = f(number of breaths ) * (tidal vol - anatomical dead space)
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What is physiological dead space
Some areas of the lung do not function adequately in gaseous exchange, either due to ventilation or perfusion deficit
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Total dead space =
total dead space = anatomical + physiological
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Gas transport involves the capillaries
carrying deoxygenated blood and leave with oxygenated blood
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Define diffusion
The sponateous movement of particles down their concentration gradient across a partial permeable membrane
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Diffusion at the respiration membrane occurs because
- differences in partial pressures of the gases are high - small diffusion distance (0.1-0.1um) - large SA for exchange(90m3) - resp gases that diffuse are lipid soluble - ventilation is well matched to pefusion
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)2 is found where
2.5% in plasma soluation abd 97.5% bound to heamoglobin
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Why does oxygen have to bind to heamoglobin
Because its not very soluble in water
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Oxyhaemoglobin =
4nhaemoglobin groups and 4 oxygen
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Benefits of heamoglobin
High capacity for oxygen carriage, capacity to take on and offload large quantities of o2 without a catalyst so does not require energy, doesn't consume gases carried
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Why is oxygen conformational to heamoglobin
When 1 oxygen binds to heamoglobin there is a high liekly hood of the 2, 3rd and 4th also combining, becuase the structire to the heam ring changes slightly increasing binding of the other sites
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4o2 = 4 heam groups =
fully saturation
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in the tissues a similar systems occurs, how is it different
it occurs in reverse
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What is a venous reserve
substantial 02 is in the venous blood
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HHb + o2 <>
Hbo2 + h2
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Transport of Co2, at rest how much is produced
200 ml from metamolism per minute
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5-8% of co2 is transported as
a gas dissolved in blood plasma
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20% of co2 is transported
Chemially bound to haemoglobin in the form of carbaminoHb in the RBC on the globin chain, rather than the centre of the Haem ring, therefore it doesn't compete with 02
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70% of co2 is transported as
a bicarbonate ion in the plasma, this only occurs once the co2 has entered the RBC
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inadequate amount of o2 delievered. pathology resting state
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Stagnant hypoxia
Circulation of blood through tissues impared (heart failure)
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insufficient of inspired o2 (altitude + pulmonary dsease)
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Histitoxic hypoxia
internal?celluar resp. enztyme are poisioned (cyanide, heavy exercise)
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Anaemic hypoxia
Poor o2 delievered as a result of too few RBC or Inadequate cells (kidney EPO. blood cell life 100-120 days)
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Heamorrhagic, Haemolytic, Iron deficient, pernicious
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What seperates the 2 nasal cavities
the nasal septum
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what is the hard palate and soft palete made of
maxilla and palatine bones and the soft palate involuntary muscle
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what cells line the nasal cavity
vascular ciliated columnar epithelium
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what is the purpose of the mucous secreting cells
filters the air
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what are the main sinues called in the nose
maxillary in lateral walls - frontal and sphenoidal sinues in the roof - ethmoidal sinuses i nthe upper part of lateral walls
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what are the sinuses involved in
speech and lightening of the skull
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what does the nasal cativty do
warm, moisten and filter the air
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where is the pharynx found
behind the mouth and larynx
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what are the 3 parts of the pharynx
nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharnx
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mucous membrane lining does what... and why is this important
protects underlying tissues from the abrasive action of food passing though udring swollowing. phaynx is involved in both the respiratory and digestive tracts
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what is the submucosa an what does it do
layer of tissue below the epithelium, protects against infection
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use of smooth muscle in the pharynx
help keep the pharynx permanently open so breathing is not obstructed
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constrictor mucles in the pharynx do what
close it dueing swollowing, forcing the food to go down the oesophagus
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nerve supply from the
pharynx plexus
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the larynx acts as the
voice box, controling pitch volume and resonance. and involved in speech
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the laynx is made up of what
nine irregular shaped cartilages attached to eacho ther by ligaments and membranes
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what ones are made of hyaline cartilage
1 thyraod 1 cricoid 2 arytenoid cartilage
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what ones are made of elestic fibrocartilage
the epiglottis
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when the muscles controlling the vocal cords are relaxed the vocal cords to what... allowing what...? and the vocal cords are said to be..?
vocal cords open, allowing air to pass through. abducted
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the trachea has how many cartilage rings
16 to 20 rings of hyaline cartilage
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what are the three layers of the trachea
outer, middle and lining
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outer layer contains what
fiberous and elastic tissue and encloses the cartliages
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middle layer
cartliages and bands of smooth muscle and areolar tissue, containing blood and lymh vessels and autonomic nerves
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the lining consists of
ciliated columnar epithelium, containing msucous screting cells
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what is the importance of the cartilage and soft bands of tissue
cartliage supports the trachea to stay open and soft tissue bands allow for flexibility
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what does the trachea do
waft muscous to the larynx and the generate the cough reflex due to nerve endings are sensitive to irritation
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how many lobes in each lung
3 lobes in the right and 2 lobes in the left, due to making room for the heart
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which bronchus is more likely to become obstructed and why?
the right, beuase it is wider, shorter and more vertical than the left
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how many branches does the right and left bonchus divide into
(r) 3 branches (l) 2 branches anf then subdivides into progressively smaller branches
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the bronchial wall structure is the same as
the trachea
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the catilage in the bronchials has what structure
like the rings in the trachea but as th airways divide these become smaller plates
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smooth muscles structure and function
as the cartilage disappears from the airway walls it is replaced by smooth msucle. this allows for control of the diameter of the airway by the autonomic nervous system
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epithelial cells lining changes when
gradually the cilaited epithelial cells are replaced with nonciliated epithelial cells and the goblet cells disappear
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function of the bronchioles
control of air entry via smooth muscle, controlled by the autonomic nervous system
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Card 2


The Cardiovasucular system allows for...?


The transport of gases between lungs and tissue cells of the body using blood as a transport mechanism

Card 3


What are the 2 processes that respiration includes


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Card 4


Functions of respiratory systems


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Card 5


The anatomy of the upper respiration system includes


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