Exchange and transport

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  • Created by: livmoss
  • Created on: 19-05-16 16:09
EXCHANGE & TRANSPORT
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Name four substances exchanged between cells and their environment
Oxygen, Glucose, Carbon dioxide, Urea.
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How do you find surface are:volume ratio?
Surface area divided by volume.
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Do large organisms have a small or large surface area: volume ratio?
Small.
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How do you find the area of a sphere?
4πr²
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How do single celled organisms exchange materials with their environment?
Diffusion via cell surface membrane.
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Give three reasons to why multicellular organisms can't rely on diffusion.
(1) Some cells are deep within the body (2) Small surface area:volume ratio (3) Have higher metabolic rate/activity so require more oxygen and glucose.
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Why are root hair cells efficient at exchange?
Each branch of root has millions of hair-like cells that stick into the soil. Gives large surface area.
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How does water move from the soil into root hair cells?
Osmosis
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How do mineral ions move from the soil into root hair cells?
Active transport.
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What are the gas exchange surface in the lungs?
Alveoli.
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What are alveoli made of and why does this make them efficient at gas exchange?
Made from single layer of flat cells called alveolar epithelium. This means there's a small diffusion pathway.
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Why is it important for alveoli to have good blood supply?
Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide between body cells and alveoli. Also helps maintain concentration gradient.
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How are fish gills adapted for gas exchange?
Well-supplied with blood and ventilated- fresh water constantly passes over them. Maintains concentration gradient of oxygen.
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What's the role of goblet cells in airways?
Excrete mucus to stop microorganisms and dust reaching the alveoli.
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What's the role of ciliated cells in airways?
Move the mucous up trachea towards throat to prevent lung infection.
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What's the role of elastic fibres in airways?
Help the process of exhaling. Fibres recoil after being stretched during inhaling.
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What's the role of smooth muscle in trachea, bronchi and bronchioles?
Controls diameter of them. During exercise, muscle relaxes, widens airways.
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What's the role of c-shaped cartilage in trachea and bronchi?
Provide support- stops them collapsing.
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List the process of breathing in.
External intercostal muscles contract, diaphragm contracts and flattens, volume increases, pressure decreases, air rushes in.
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List the process of breathing out.
External intercostal muscles relax, diaphragm relaxes and domes, volume decreases, pressure increases, air rushes out.
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Define tidal volume.
Volume of air breathed in and out during one ventilation cycle.
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Define vital capacity.
Maximum amount of air that can be breathe din and out in one ventilation cycle.
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Define residual volume.
Certain volume of air that remains in the lungs to prevent them collapsing.
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Define total lung capacity.
Vital capacity + residual volume.
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Define breathing rate.
How many breaths are taken in a certain amount of time - usually 1 minute.
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Name the machine that can measure breathing.
Spirometer.
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What is the counter-current system fish use for gas exchange?
Blood flows through gill plates in the opposite direction to the water flowing over them
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How does this system ensure maximum oxygen uptake?
The concentration of oxygen in the water it always higher than in the blood so as much oxygen as possible diffuses from water to blood.
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List the process of how water moves into the gills.
Fish opens its mouth, floor of buccal cavity lowered, volume increases, pressure decreases, water sucked into cavity.
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List the process of how water is forced out of gills.
Fish closes mouth, floor of buccal cavity raised, volume decreases, pressure increases, water forced out of cavity across the gill filaments.
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What is the role of the operculum?
Bony flap that covers each gill, protecting it. Increased pressure forces operculum open so water can leave gills.
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How would you dissect fish gills?
Apron, gloves, cutting board, scissors. Push back operculum, remove gills w/ scissors. Cut each gill arch through top and bottom.
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What do insects use for gas echange?
Trachea, microscopic air-filled pipes.
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What are the pores in insects surface called?
Spiracles.
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What are smaller branches of trachea called?
Tracheoles, have thin permeable walls.
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How is it possible for oxygen to reach body cells from tracheoles?
They contain fluid so oxygen can dissolve. Carbon dioxide diffuses in opposit direction.
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How to insects change the volume of their bodies to move air in?
Rhythmic abdominal movements. Wing movement can also pump their thorax.
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How can you dissect exchange system of insects?
Humanely kill large insect (e.g grasshopper). Dissecting board and pins. Cut & remove exoskeleton, fill abdomen with saline solution - should appear silver/grey.
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What are the walls of the trachea made of?
Chitin.
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Structure of lungs...
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Structure of spirometer...
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Structure of gills...
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Card 2

Front

Name four substances exchanged between cells and their environment

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Oxygen, Glucose, Carbon dioxide, Urea.

Card 3

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How do you find surface are:volume ratio?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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Do large organisms have a small or large surface area: volume ratio?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How do you find the area of a sphere?

Back

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