Evolutionary psychology

What is natural selection?
Reducing variation to identify the most adaptive trait for the environment the individual finds themselves in and this characteristics is passed on across generations
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What do 2 traits that develop?
A traits has 'fitness' which indicates adaptation in terms of two qualities of off spring; 1) fecudity (Number of offspring) and 2) survivorship (Live long enough to reproduce), traits develop as fitness indicators
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What is inter-sexual?
Mate selection
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What is intra sexual?
Competition
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What are extremes?
Selected against, common in stable environments, extreme birth weight in babies is selected against
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What is heritability?
Proportion of total phenotypic variation in the population that is due to genetic variation - h2 = Gv / Gv +Ev
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What is H2 based?
Idea that G and E are independent. We know this is not true. The gene- environment correlation (Gecorrelation)
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Not all genetic variance is transmitted from one generation to the next?
only additive effects, dominance (Interaction of alleles at same locus of chromosome) and epistasis (Interaction of alleles at different loci of chromosome) are not
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Penke, Denissen and Miller (2007)
PDM suggest three possible mechanisms for the evolution of personality: Selective neutrality, mutation selection, balancing selection
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What is selection neutrality?
Fitness neutral mutations build up and lead to increased genetic variation in the trait
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What is it effected by?
Genetic drift, human populations are too large
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What do traits not do?
Influence fitness, traits effect many fitness outcomes, longevity, reproduction
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Alvergne et al (2010) Reproductive experiments what is measured?
More children and children who live to 5 years, ultimate reproductive success = the number of children times the mean survival of children to age 5, given their BMI
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What is their greater reproductive success ?
In women linked to average levels of neuroticism
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What is linked to men?
Higher extraversion in men is linked to greater social status and more children
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What is mutation selection balance?
Natural selection (Decreasing trait variances) balances the effects of mutation (Increasing trait variance)
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What are they more susceptible to?
Inbreeding depression and out breeding elevation, not the case for personality, traits should be sexually attractive and show assortative mating
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Do you get what you want?
Yes but only for personality traits of O and C
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What did Husbands who wanted a kind considerate wives got?
One with high A and E
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Wives who wanted kind considerate husbands got ones who were?
Aloof, submissive, unmasculine, unsociable and unamussing
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Under balancing selection theory, What is environmental heterogeneity?
Fitness varies across time and space, and are on average neutral across all spatio-temporal contexts
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What is frequency dependent selection?
Positive: Favour traits with high frequency- runaway selection, negative = favours traits with a low frequency
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What is variable optima under the trade off model?
Any trait will have a optimum fitness that varies across situations and time
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What is environmental heterogeneity?
As environmental changes then associations between trait and behaviour change
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What is the implication?
The adaptability of a trait will therefore depend on context
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What is behavioural genetics?
all traits are polygenic, these are termed quantitative trait loci, twin studies are used to estimate the degree of gentic and environmental influence on a trait
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What is the assumptions of twin studies?
MZ and DZ share the same environment, MZ are treated by parents as more equal, this may be questioned
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What is the gene-environment correlation?
It is minimal, the genetic make up of an individual influences the types of environment they select to be in, individuals select themselves into certain environment
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What are twin scores equivalent to?
Trait scores in the population
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How does mating occur?
At random, choose similar people - this increases the DZ correlation relative to the MZ correlation and over estimates the effects of Environment
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What is zygosity?
How do you assess if twins are identical or not long time after birth?
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What are MZ twins for medical disorders?
Epilepsy, ulcer, arthiritis
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What are common behaviour disorders for MZ twins?
Reading disability, major affective disorder and autism
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What is the correlation between MZ twins personality?
IQ, Verbal reasoning and processing speed
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Higher H2 heritability does not mean what?
Easier to find genes associated with the trait
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For example?
Height has a heritability of .90, GWAS find 54 genes for height, these not the same genes across all studies and account for 5% of the variance
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How do Genes and environment act?
Dynamically
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For example?
Genetic effects only emerge with respect to environmental exposure
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What can trait be?
Inherited across generation but mean levels differ as environments change
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What is trait expression?
If you score high on extraversion will you always exhibit extraverted behaviours or will you sometime exhibit introverted behaviour
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What should people have a preferred?
Way to express their trait, but also be able to express aspects depending on context
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What is behavioural reaction norms?
Designed to examine how people change in their expression of behaviour as the environments they are in change `
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A person is high in extraversion will be quite?
in a library, but probably less so than a person who is more of an introvert
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What is a more introverted person?
more outgoing at a party, than they are on average but probably less so than a more extraverted person.
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What is personality?
Defined in a BRN as the average behavioural response across contexts. This is how personality is traditionally defined, what traditional personality measures are supposed to tap into
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What does behavioural plasticity?
refers to a change in an organism's behavior that results from exposure to stimuli, such as changing environmental conditions
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What happens to the trait?
It changes as context changes
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Variation is measured in?
Mean and plasticity
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What is density distribution approach?
Traits reflect accumulation of everyday personality states: Personality
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What is behavioural plasticity?
Describe the distribution of an individual traits and dynamic interaction with context
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What is the phenotype and phenotypic expression?
The mean behaviour personality, typical performance, plasticity, trait, expression, potential for adaptability
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What is experience sampling methodology?
Use experience sampling methods, looking at the natural history of behaviour, assess people at multiple time points (4-8 times a day)
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What is the finding for behavioural plasticity?
refers to a change in an organism's behavior that results from exposure to stimuli, such as changing environmental conditions
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What is the second finding?
Individuals have a central tendency and these are very stable, there is also stability in the amount of variability therefore variation is fairly stable and a part of personality to be studied
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What is the extant that the behaviour is indicative of the personality trait?
Tendency to differ with respect to average behaviours, extraverts are moderately extraverted 5-10% more than introverts, personality traits predict mean and extreme behaviour
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What is the socio genomic model?
This implies that both the expression of behaviours associated with trait and the mean level of trait can vary in the environment, biological factors, environment, states and biology
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What do the military have?
Less agreeableness
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What does sexually selected traits show?
Variability otherwise choice and competition are not possible, if we were all the same (homogenous) on a trait then who would you whoose to be a sexual partner
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What are Miller and Todd's two stage lens model?
Physical attractiveness, intelligence, social status, personality
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What did Iredale do?
Participant plays a number of economic games and indicates how much they would donate to charity. Play on their own or in dyads watched by someone of the same or opposite sex.
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What were the results?
For men only, when observed by a female they donate more
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What is the costly singaling theory?
Hard to fake indicators of an animals fitness, costly signals offers a solution to the problem of cheating/lying/ faking,
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Therefore the signal has to be?
The signal has to be high cost, so that only healthy, high status, high condition animals are able to produce and maintain it. Therefore, it is a reliable indicator of evolutionary fitness
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What is the preference and trait expression?
Preference for a trait (e.g., openness) and the trait itself should not only be correlated in terms of responses but also at a genetic on level. Both variation in the preference for the trait and the trait itself have to pass onto the next generation
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Card 2

Front

What do 2 traits that develop?

Back

A traits has 'fitness' which indicates adaptation in terms of two qualities of off spring; 1) fecudity (Number of offspring) and 2) survivorship (Live long enough to reproduce), traits develop as fitness indicators

Card 3

Front

What is inter-sexual?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is intra sexual?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are extremes?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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