Evaluation of Cloward and Ohlin

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Like Cohen and Merton, their theory is seen as too...
....determinstic assuming that all those who are surrounded by/pressured into deviance will deviate.
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Like Cohen and Merton, they can also be criticised by Marxists on the grounds that..
...he ignores the wider power structures including who makes/enforces the law to criminalise certain groups. (In this case: the ruling class having the power to make/enforce laws that criminalise the working class)
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Unlike Cohen, they provide an explanation of...
...different types of working class deviance in terms of different subcultures.
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However, Cloward and Ohlin draw the boundaries too sharply between...
...the different types of deliquent subcultures.
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What did South find?
Drug trade is a mixture of disorganised crime and professional (mafia) style criminal subcutlures.
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This shows us that...
...features of his different subcultures can overlap.
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However, in their theory, it would not be possible to...
...belong to more than one of these subcultures simultaneously.
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Why are Strain theories that belong to Cloward and Ohlin/Cohen sometimes called 'reactive' theories of subcultures?
They explain deviant subcultures as forming in reaction to failing to achieve mainstream goals
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However, which sociologist argued that the lower class has its own independent subculture separate from mainstream culture (with its own values) and that it didn't value succes in the first place?
Miller
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Therefore, according to Miller, do deviant subcultures form as a result of reacting to failure in the mainstream system?
No because working class culture never valued success in the middle class-dominated, mainstream systsem in the firs place so its members are not frustrated by failure.
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Although Miller agrees with Cloward/Ohlin/Merton/Cohen that deviance is widespread...
... in the lower class.
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What does Miller believe that deviance arises from?
Working class people's attempt to achieve their own goals not the mainstream ones.
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What does Mliller call working class people's own goals?
'Focal goals.'
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What did Matza argue?
Most delinquents are not strongly committed to their subcultures, as strain theories suggest, but drift in and out of delinquency.
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Regardless of strenghts and weaknesses, what has strain theory had a major influence on?
Later theories of crime/governement policy
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An example of this is:
Merton's ideas play an important part in left realist explanations of crime.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Like Cohen and Merton, they can also be criticised by Marxists on the grounds that..

Back

...he ignores the wider power structures including who makes/enforces the law to criminalise certain groups. (In this case: the ruling class having the power to make/enforce laws that criminalise the working class)

Card 3

Front

Unlike Cohen, they provide an explanation of...

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

However, Cloward and Ohlin draw the boundaries too sharply between...

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did South find?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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