Cloward and Ohlin: three subcultures
Cloward and Ohlin (1960) - not everyone adapts to a lack of legitimate opportunities by turning to innovation crime.
Some sucbcultures result to violence, others to drug use.
- Unequal access to both the legitimate opportunity structure and the illegitimate opportunity structure. (e.g. not everyone who fails at school can become a sucessful safecraker).