EUROPE TEST

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INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS – Main agreements? (Washington Conference, 1921, USA, Britain&France reduced navies), (Rapallo Treaty, 1922, Russia&Germany resumed diplomatic relations), (Dawes Plan, 1924, USA help Germany with their reparations) [PTO]
(Locarno Treaties, 1925, Germany agreed to western borders set at Versailles), (Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928, 65 nations agreed not to use force to settle arguments), (Young Plan, 1925, reduced reparations by 75% and gave Germany 59 years to pay them)
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PROBLEMS WITH THE AGREEMENTS – Washington Conference: nobody wanted to reduce arms further (LEAGUE FAILED AT DISARMAMENT) Dawes and Young Plan: benefits of these were wiped out by the economic Depression
COUNTRIES STARTED MAKING AGREEMENTS WITHOUT LoN BECAUSE THEY DIDN’T TRUST IT TO BE EFFECTIVE.
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EFFECTS OF THE DEPRESSION - Effects in the USA? 1929 - USA stopped lending money abroad and called in its loans, 1930 - nearly 2000 banks collapsed as people rushed to withdraw savings, 1933 - over 12 million people unemployed in USA
Effects in Britain&Europe? Britain forced to devalue the £ in Sept.1929, made it worth less; Brit. introduced protection - import tariffs to protect goods (DIDN'T WORK); USSR least affected because of COMMUNIST SYSTEM.
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Good things from Depression? People in work's standard of living ROSE, bought more for less money; in Britain especially there were new industries like cars, aircraft, etc, not affected much because they used used electricity or oil for manufacture
Industries like Coal, Shipbuilding and Iron and Steel (staple industries) suffered badly
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JAPANESE EXPANSION: seen as a threat by USA, had been at war with Russia in 1904 and its industries had grown in the East, USA was worried about Japanese competition and tried to limit its power.
JAPANESE EXPANSION (CTD): since 1905 had controlled the territory of the South Manchurian Railway, in Sept. 1931 used the excuse of a disturbance to take Mukden and send its troops to overrun the rest of Manchuria, WEAKENED LE LEAGUE DE NATION.
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ITALIAN EXPANSION: Abyssinia Crisis (1935, October), why did Mussolini invade? 1) REVENGE because they invaded in 1896. 2) Abyssinia (now Ethiopia) was well-positioned for Italy to add her lands to Africa.
3) Mussolini had seen Japan get away with the Manchuria invasion DESPITE the LoN's threats. 4) Muss. dreamed of making Italy a great empire again. AT LE BEGINNING OF 1930s,MUSS. HAD BEEN MORE ON THE SIDE OF BRITAIN&FRANCE BUT HAD WORRIED 'BOUT HITLER
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FAILURE OF LoN: FAILED TO ACHIEVE ITS ORIGINAL AIMS (disarmament, etc) AND DEMOCRACY HAD COLLAPSED IN MOST OF EUROPE.
Because LoN was busy with the Abyssinia Crisis, nobody stopped Germany remilitarising the Rhineland in 1936, Britain supported them because nobody wanted to make a fight, Britain&France weren't strong enough to oppose Germany
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CAUSES OF WW2: APPEASEMENT - Chamberlain didn't want another major war, better to let Hitler have the Sudetenland, people believed Hitler had a right to protect Germans who lived there. BRITAIN WAS MORE WORRIED ABOUT COMMUNISM and USSR than Hitler
(March 1939) Hitler invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia, Britain&France realised that appeasement wouldn't work, THIS ENCOURAGED USSR TO MAKE A PACT (Non-Agression Nazi-Soviet Pact) because if Stalin helped Hitler get Poland he'd get half
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9 STEPS TO WAR: 1) Rearmament, 2) Rhineland remilitarised, 3) Rome-Berlin Axis, 4) British appeasement, 5) Union with Austria, 6) Sudetenland, 7) Czech., 8) Nazi-Soviet Pact, 9) Poland
REVISE ALL OF THIS AND YOU WON'T FAIL (HOPEFULLY).
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

COUNTRIES STARTED MAKING AGREEMENTS WITHOUT LoN BECAUSE THEY DIDN’T TRUST IT TO BE EFFECTIVE.

Back

PROBLEMS WITH THE AGREEMENTS – Washington Conference: nobody wanted to reduce arms further (LEAGUE FAILED AT DISARMAMENT) Dawes and Young Plan: benefits of these were wiped out by the economic Depression

Card 3

Front

Effects in Britain&Europe? Britain forced to devalue the £ in Sept.1929, made it worth less; Brit. introduced protection - import tariffs to protect goods (DIDN'T WORK); USSR least affected because of COMMUNIST SYSTEM.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Industries like Coal, Shipbuilding and Iron and Steel (staple industries) suffered badly

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

JAPANESE EXPANSION (CTD): since 1905 had controlled the territory of the South Manchurian Railway, in Sept. 1931 used the excuse of a disturbance to take Mukden and send its troops to overrun the rest of Manchuria, WEAKENED LE LEAGUE DE NATION.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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