Ethnicity

Linguistic appropriacy
Appropriate language for situations
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Code mixing
Refers to inserting vocabulary from one language to another
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Code switching
Moves from one language to another for more extensive periods of time.
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Cheshire
Multi-Cultural London English (MLE)
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Cheshire's findings
Natives not as impactful on language, whereas influences of second language are. Creates organic hybrid form of English. Refers to the changing nature of British society and language used.
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MLE characteristics
Vocabulary: 'bare' (very), 'beef' (conflict). Phonology: 'fes' (face). Grammar: 'dem' is plural - 'mandem' (men)
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Pitts
Resistance identity
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Pitts' findings
Found shift among young black English speakers towards a resistance identity (an identity which goes against mainstream).
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Fox
Multi Ethnic Youth Dialect (MEYD)
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Fox's findings
Characteristics drawn from several languages, creoles, and cultural sources (white, black, Asain). Usually identified with adolescents - showing age and social group affect language. Accents expanding and replacing/evolving to new ones.
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MEYD lexis
'nang' (good/cool), 'ends' (neighbourhood ends), 'safe/easy' (greeting), 'buff' (attractive), 'blud' (mate)
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Sebba
British Black English (BBE)
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Sebba's findings
Includes phonological, lexical, grammatical features of Caribbean creole, cockney, Standard English/Received Pronounciation. Evolved through language needs of immigrant communities that settled in England.
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BBE Vocabulary
Don't use different verb forms for past/present, 'he walk down the street'. Negatives 'me no want'. 'Th' voiced replaced with voiced 'd', 'dem'. Unvoiced 'th' replaced with unvoiced 't', 'tink'.
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Attitudes to BBE
View that they have bad grammar and can't talk properly. Seen as childish, inferior, incorrect. TV programs like 'Rastamouse' exposes children to poor quality language, supporters state it provides Caribbean heritage to children.
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Jafaican
'Fake Jamaican'. According to Sunday times, in 2030 Jafaican will completely replace cockney. Adoption of Jafaican reflects both a lack of confidence in British cultural values and an aspiration towards some form of Ghetto authenticity.
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David Starkey
Stated 'the whites have become black. A particular sort of violent, destructive nihilistic gangsta culture has become the fashion'. Also stated 'Jamaican Patois has been intruded in England.' - Prescriptivist view.
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Shaknaz - study of British black woman
Factors affecting language use: formal situations uses Standard English. At home mimics African accent in jest which became part of her vernacular 'Chale' (friend). Shows importance of context as only speaks Patois for humour or reciting song lyrics.
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Representations of certain Ethnic groups
Certain ethnic groups are singled out and associated with crime. Dangerous and politically charged when a whole community is damned for the actions of a few. Example: Islamophobia - Islam linked to terrorism. Black people linked to theft.
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Teenagers
Within inner London, or ethnically diverse areas are forging a sepaate multi-ethnic youth dialect based on common culture rather than ethnic background. Some state they imitate the 'cool' people as feel obliged to sound like them - social pressure.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Refers to inserting vocabulary from one language to another

Back

Code mixing

Card 3

Front

Moves from one language to another for more extensive periods of time.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Multi-Cultural London English (MLE)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Natives not as impactful on language, whereas influences of second language are. Creates organic hybrid form of English. Refers to the changing nature of British society and language used.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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