Equilibria

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What is dynamic equilibrium?
A situation in which the composition of a reaction mixture does not change because both forward and backward reactions are proceeding at the same rate
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In what system can equilibrium be reached?
A closed system
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When is equilbrium reached?
When the rates of two opposing processes which are going on all the time are the same
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T/F Once equilibrium is reached the concentrations of the reactants and products do not change
True
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T/F, At equilibrium the forward and backwards reaction come to a halt
False
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T/F, Equilibrium is only reached in a closed system
True
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T/F, An equilibrium mixture always contains half reactants, half products
False
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What happens to the position of the equilibrium if the proportion of products in increased?
Moves to the right
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What happens to the position of the equilibrium if the proportion of reactants in increased?
Moves to the left
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What is Le Chatelier's Principle?
If a system at equilibrium is disturbed , the equilibrium moves in the direction that tends to reduce the disturbance
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What happens if we increase the concentreation of the reactants?
Moves to the right
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What would happen if we took away the products as soon as they formed?
Moves to the right
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What kind of reaction does pressure only effect?
Reactions containing gases
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What does increasing the pressure mean?
Means there is more molecules of gas in a given volume
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What happens if all molecules have the same amount of moles?
The equlibrium will stay the same
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Is the forward reaction endothermic or exothrmic if the enthalpy change is negative?
Exothermic
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What does Le Chatelier's principle tell us if we increase the temperature?
Equilibrium moves in the direction that cools down the system, it will move in the direction that absorbs heat-endothermic
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What effects do catalysts have on equilibrium?
No effect on the position
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How do catalysts work?
They produce an alternative route for the reaction which has a lower activation energy of the reaction, this affects the forward and backward reaction equally
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What elements produce ammonia?
Nitrogen and Hydrogen
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What is the formula for ammonia?
NH3
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What catalyst is used in the Haber Process?
Iron
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Pressure for the haber process?
200 atmosphere
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Temperature for the Haber Process?
670 K
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What happens to Hydrogen and Nitrogen that isn't converted?
Fed back into the reactor
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Why is the iron catalyst in pea sized lumps?
Increase surface area
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What is ammonia used for?
Fertilizers, nylon,
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What's ethanol used for in industry?
Cosmetics,drugs, motor fuel
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How is ethanol made?
Hydration, adding water to ethene
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How is the hydration reaction sped up?
A phosphoric catalyst absorbed on silica
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What is the equation for the hydration reaction to form ethanol?
C2H4 + H2O-----> C2H5OH
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What would increasing the pressure of the hydration reaction do to the position of the equilibrium?
Moves to the right
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What would decreasing the temperature of the hydration reaction do to the position of the equilibrium?
Moves to the right
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What would excess amount of steam in the hydration reaction do to the position of the equilibrium?
Moves to the right
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What are the problems with a low temperature in the production of ethanol?
Reduce the reaction rate and therefore how quickly equilibrium is reached
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What are the problems with high pressure in the production of ethanol?
Causes the ethene to polymerise, buildings the plant and the energy costs of running it
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What are the problems with excess steam in the production of ethanol?
Too much steam dilutes the catalyst
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In industry what are the conditions for the production of ethanol?
570K and 6500 kPa
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What is methanol principally used for?
Chemical Feedstock
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How is methanol made?
Carbon monoxide and hydrogen
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What catalyst is used in the production of methanol?
Copper
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What are the best conditions for the production of methanol?
High pressure, low temperature
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What are the compromise conditions used for the production of methanol?
500K and a pressure 10,000kPa
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

In what system can equilibrium be reached?

Back

A closed system

Card 3

Front

When is equilbrium reached?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

T/F Once equilibrium is reached the concentrations of the reactants and products do not change

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

T/F, At equilibrium the forward and backwards reaction come to a halt

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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