Kinetics and Equilibria 

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  • Created by: leenaq
  • Created on: 04-03-14 18:19
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  • Kinetics and Equilibria
    • Reaction Rates
      • A reaction will not happen unless
        • they collide in the right direction
          • need to be facing each other the right way
        • they collide with the least amount of kinetic energy
          • activation energy
            • the minimum energy required for particles to react
            • the lower the activation energy, the easier the reaction happens
      • Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution
        • its  is a theoretical model that explains scientific observations
        • what  it  shows
          • the  speed of molecules ( the number of molecules against kinetic energy
        • the molecules that have more than the activation energy are the ones that react
      • variables that  effect reaction rates
        • increasing temperature
          • the molecules will have more kinetic energy and will move faster
        • increasing concentration(or pressure)
          • means the particles are closer together
        • increasing surface area
          • a  smaller particle size means that more particles can come in contact.
        • using a catalyst
          • they lower the activation energy hence more particles have enough energy to react
      • catalysts
        • increases the rate of a reaction by providing an alternative reaction pathway with a lower activation energy.
        • a homogeneous catalyst is in the same state as the reactants.
          • they speed up the reactions by forming one or more intermediate compounds with reactants
    • chemical equilibria
      • reversible reactions
        • the reaction can go either direction
        • the forward reaction slows down and the reverse reaction speeds up
          • after a while the forward and reverse reactions are going to be the same
        • dynamic equilibrium
          • when the amounts of reactants and products won't be changing ( seems like nothing is happening )
          • can only happen in a closed system
        • changing concentration, pressure or temperature alters the position go equilibrium
          • if the position of equilibrium moves left you get more reactants
          • of the position of equilibrium moves right you get more products
      • position of equilibria
        • catalysts
          • no effect on the position of equilibrium
        • concentration
          • when you increase the concentration of a reaction equilibrium tries to get rid of extra reactant, making more product and vice versa
        • pressure
          • increasing the pressure shifts equilibrium to  the side where less gas molecules are. reduces pressure
          • decreasing pressure shifts equilibrium to the side where more gas molecules are, raises pressure
        • temperature
          • increasing the temperature, equilibrium shifts in endothermic direction to absorb heat
          • decreasing the temperature, equilibrium shifts in exothermic direction to replace heat


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