English Language - Language and Gender

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Cheshire(1882)
Her reading study showed that young boys use more non-standard grammar than their female counterparts. Overall, boys used non-standard forms more frequently than girls did.
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Defancisco(1998)
In conversation women tend to manage turn taking more than men. Women also tend to continue to speak about their previous speaker’s topic.
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Milroy
Members of a speech community are connected to each other in social networks which may be relatively ‘closed’ or ‘open’.
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Jones(1980)
Categorized gossip into house talk (domestic tasks). Scandal (judging others). Bitching(bemoaning subordination) and chatting.
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Zimmerman and West(1975)
There is no significant difference in interruptions in single-sex conversations.
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Holmes(1984)
Distinguished two functions of tag questions: modal vs. effective.
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Trudgill(1972)
Norwich Study – how gender affects dialect in each social class.
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Woods(1989)
Women used supportive interactional strategies even to subordinates.
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Julie Blake(2006)
Women swear twice as much in single-sex conversations(8%). Middle aged people use the most unmarked terms.
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O'Barr and Atkins(1980)
An idea that language differences are situation-specific, relying on who has the authority and power in a conversation, rather than the gender of the people involved.
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Coates(1998)
Coates theorized that girls and boys develop different styles of speaking due to their largely differing interactions in their all boys and all girls friendship groups.
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Fishman(1980)
Fishman was responsible for the dominance model a year after Cheshire's study. she focused on tag questions, listening to 52 hours of pre-recorded conversations between young American couples.
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Card 2

Front

In conversation women tend to manage turn taking more than men. Women also tend to continue to speak about their previous speaker’s topic.

Back

Defancisco(1998)

Card 3

Front

Members of a speech community are connected to each other in social networks which may be relatively ‘closed’ or ‘open’.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Categorized gossip into house talk (domestic tasks). Scandal (judging others). Bitching(bemoaning subordination) and chatting.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

There is no significant difference in interruptions in single-sex conversations.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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