ENGL110 Red Topics

  • Created by: Caitlinl
  • Created on: 28-05-17 14:34
What is stylistics?
The application of techniques and concepts in modern linguistics to literary texts
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What is a zeugma?
A figure of speech in which a word applies to 2 others in different senses
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What is Jakobson's poetic function?
The conative, phatic, referential, emotive, poetic and metalingual functions of language
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What is mind style?
The narrator is naieve; reader has to make inferences and creates empathy
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What are the structural causes of language change?
The Great Vowel Shift
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What are the contact causes of language change?
Liverpool English; Vikings; Normans
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What are the social causes of language change?
Fashion (Bath/trap vowel); Identity (Middlesborough study)
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What are the consequences of the Great Vowel Shift?
Affect long vowels; vowels become higher in the mouth; the highest vowels become diphthongs
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When did the GVS happen?
Between the 15th and 18th Century (still not complete- north)
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What is the name for a structural change in the phonological system?
A chain shift
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What are the consequences of the contact factors?
The voiceless velar fricative (X); 't' pronounced as 'h'(lenition); weakening of consonants
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When did Scouse begin to differ from Lancs accent?
Pre 1830s sounded the same, 1889 distinct accent
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What are some reasons for Liverpool English?
Industrialisation and growth of the docks in mid 19th Century
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What happened as a result of this?
People moved to lpool to work (Northerners, Scotland, Wales and Ireland cos famine); transferred unique speech features e.g. Lenition from Irish; migration of people from Africa/Carribean etc; no domination of 1 variety
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How did the Vikings contribute to language change?
Place name (-thorpe; -thwaite; -croft); skirt, sky, etc from Old Norse (borrowing)
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How did the Normans contribute to language change?
1066 Norman Conquest' Normans spoke french and imposed a lot of their language; through settlement and invasion and use of loanwords
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What are some other contributing factors so language change?
Exploration (ukulele) and technology (higher intonation diffused to Britain from Australia etc through media)
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What are the consequences of the social factors of language change?
Late 19th Century [a:] pronunciation became popular in the south as thought it made them sound educated; Llamas (2000) study on identity (Middlesborough)
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What are the 3 factors on the pragmatics triangle?
Users/interpreters; Linguistic sign; signified
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What is Austin's 1962 Speech Act Theory?
Consists of Constatives (true/false facts of a case); Locutionary Act (production of meaningful expression); Illocutionary act (action intended by the expression); Perlocutionary act (Effect of what is said on hearer)
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What are Paul Grice's 1975 theories?
Theory of conversational implicature (implied meaning intentionally generated by speaker); Co-operative principle (how effective communication in conversation is achieved)
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What are Grice's conversational maxims?
Quantity (saying required amount); Quality (don't lie/ say something you have no evidence for); Relation (be relevant); manner (clear, unambigous, brief)
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What are some common myths about regional variation?
Scousers accent due to pollution; NZ accent due to adults having teeth removed
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Do all accents share the same phonlogical system?
No, all have their own phonological system (ways speech sounds are organised and structured)
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What is a lexical set?
A keyword that represents a particular vowel. Keyword stands in for all words with the same vowel
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What are the lexical sets?
Kit; Dress, lot, fleece, thought, force, face
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What are the systematic differences between lexical sets?
Differences in the number of phonemes between accents
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What are some examples of systematic differences between lexical sets?
North/south u vowel, nurse and square in Lpool, near and square in NZ; once accent has an extra phoneme - used to make contrast
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What are the realisational differences of lexical sets?
Differences in the realisation of certain phonemes; parts of the phonological systems may be the same, but some phonemes may be realised differently
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What is vocalisation?
Becoming a vowel, or more vowel-like
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What are the realisations of phonemes?
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What are the distributional differences in language?
Differences in phonotactic distribution and differences in lexical distribution
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What is phonotactic distribution?
Restrictions on combinations of sounds in a language
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Why is this?
Certain sequences of sounds are permitted in one accent and not in another; phonemes in 1 accent can appear in particular positions in a syllable where they are forbidden from appearing in other accents
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What is an example of phonotactic distribution?
Rhotic pronunciation (pronouncing r in north) - fully rhotic accents have no phonotactic restrictions on where 'r' can occur
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When is 'r' pronounced in non-rhotic accents?
Only when 'r' is followed by a vowel
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What is lexical distribution?
Differences in the groups of words that certain phonemes occur in
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What is an example of lexical distribution?
2 accents, same phonemic inventory but phonemes distributed differently in different sets of lexical items; same phonemes exist in both accents -distributed in different sets of lexical items
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What is Conceptual Integration Theory?
Blending operates on 2 input mental spaces to yield a third space, the blend.
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What is the blend?
Inherits partial structure from the input spaces and has emergent structure of its own (Fauconnar, 1997)
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What is standardisation?
Process of creating a standard language
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How does standardisation work?
Language made up of different, equally valid varieties; system of communication used in particular community
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How do you define communication?
Distinctive lexical/grammar/phonology and linked to geographical location
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What is an accent?
Only distinctive pronunciation, as you can speak any type (variety) of english with different accents
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What is a dialect?
Distinctive lexicon, grammar and often, but not always a distinctive pronunciation; variety tied to a given geographical location
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What is a sociolect?
Variety tied to a social group (ethnic, economic or cultural)
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What is the ideology of standardisation?
The standard variety - linguistically better than any other variety;
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What reasons are there for choosing standard english?
Socio-political and economic
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Where did standard english evolve>
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What is Haugen's standardisation model?
Selection; Elaboration; Implementation and codification
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What is selection?
Choosing between a number of linguistic alternatives - choice is not arbitrary (socio-economic/political reasons)
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What is elaboration?
Extension of functions reach of standard variety (chosen variety to talk about anything and everything, can be used in all environments)
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What is implementation?
Gradual acceptance of variety of the model of the language - institutional/authority using that variety of language
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What is codification?
Language presented as a code - writing of grammars/dictionaries
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is a zeugma?


A figure of speech in which a word applies to 2 others in different senses

Card 3


What is Jakobson's poetic function?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is mind style?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are the structural causes of language change?


Preview of the front of card 5
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