Endocrine system

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  • Created by: Steff06
  • Created on: 24-03-16 13:56
What are endocrine glands?
Ductless glands which consist of cells that produce and release a blood hormone into capillaries running through the gland.
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What do they do?
Secrete hormones directly into the blood.
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What are exocrine glands?
Have a small duct that carries the secretion to another place.
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What do exocrine glands not do?
They do not release hormones.
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What are hormones and how are they released?
Molecules that are released by endocrine glands directly into the blood.
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What do hormones act as?
Messengers that carry signals from from the endocrine gland to a specific target organ or tissue.
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What must cells possess to receive a hormone signal?
A complementary receptor to the hormone on their plasma membrane which will allow the hormone to the receptor.
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What are target cells?
Cells that possess a specific receptor on their cell surface membrane.
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What are the two types of hormones and what are examples of them?
Protein/peptide hormones such as adrenaline, insulin and glucagon. Steroid hormones such as sex hormones.
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How does adrenaline cause an effect inside the target cell?
An adrenaline receptor on the outside of the cell surface membrane has a complementary shape to the shape of the adrenaline molecule.
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What enzyme is the receptor associated with and where is it found?
Adenyl cyclase which is found on the inside of the cell surface membrane.
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How does the adrenaline interact with the receptor on the cell surface membrane?
Adrenaline binds to the receptor.
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What is the adrenaline molecule known as?
the 1st messenger
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What happens when adrenaline binds to the receptor?
It activates adenyl cyclase which converts ATP to cAMP.
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What is cAMP known as?
The second messenger
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What happens once cAMP is produced?
cAMP can cause an effect inside the cell by activating enzyme action.
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What regions can the adrenal glands be divided into?
The medulla region and the cortex region.
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What do the cells in the medulla do?
Manufacture and release adrenaline in response to stress.
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What is the overall effect of adrenaline?
To prepare the body for activity.
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What effects does adrenaline have on the body?
Relax smooth muscle in the bronchioles, increase stroke volume of the heart, increase heart rate, cause vasoconstriction to increase blood pressure, stimulate conversion of glycogen to glucose.
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last question continued...
Dilate the pupils, increase mental awareness, inhibit gut action and cause hairs on skin to erect.
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What does the adrenal cortex do?
Uses cholesterol to produce certain steroid hormones.
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What do mineralocorticoids do?
Help to control concentrations of sodium and potassium in the blood.
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What is an example of a mineralocorticoid?
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What do glucocorticoids do?
Help to control the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins in the liver.
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What is an example of a glucocorticoid?
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Card 2


What do they do?


Secrete hormones directly into the blood.

Card 3


What are exocrine glands?


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Card 4


What do exocrine glands not do?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are hormones and how are they released?


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