Endocrine system -adrenaline

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  • endocrine system
    • hormones
      • molecules that are released by endocrine glands directly into the blood acting as messengers to specific traget organs or tissues
      • there are two types of hormone
        • proteins and peptides, (not soluable in phospholipid membrane) Eg adrenaline, insulin, glucagon
        • steroid hormones ( have direct effect on nucleus and can enter the cell) Eg sex hormones
      • endocrine is direct into the blood
      • exocrine secretes into a duct that carries the molecule to where they are used
    • adrenaline
      • is an amino acid derivative and is associated with a receptor on inner membran called adenyl cyclase
      • adrenaline binds to its specific receptors on the cell surface membrane, it is the first messener molecule
      • it activates adenyl cyclase which coverts ATP into cAMP which is the secondary messenger
      • adrenyl gland
        • medulla is at the centre and makes and releases adrenaline in times of shock or stress
        • adrenyl cortex uses colesterol to produce certain steroids
      • relaxes bronchiole muscles
      • increases stroke volume
      • heart rate increases
      • pupil dialation
      • inhibits gut action

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