Elections and Voting

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Manifesto
A document in which a party puts forward its policies that it would set in action if they were to gain power.
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Turnout
the proportion of people who turn out to vote in an election.
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Election
A competative process in which a designated group of people, known as the electorate, select individuals who will fill particular posts. Elections are essential to a democratic society. The electorate in the uk consists of most adults.
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legitimacy
Usually equated with rightfulness, a political system is legitimate when it is based on the consent of the people (winning an election gives a government legitimacy) Citizens within a democracy accept the lgitimacy of a government if it is lawful.
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Representation
When an individual acts on behalf of a larger group of people, for example a representative and their constituency and its constituents.
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Representative
a) an individual who acts on behalf of a group but who can excercise their own judgement. b) exhibiting likeness or being typical.
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Delegate
An individual who acts on behalf of others but is bound by clear instrctions.
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Trustee
An individual who has formal responsibility for the interests of another.
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Constituency
A geographical territory for which representativs are chosen in an election.
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District magnitude
The number of representatives elected from a particular constituency.
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Majoratarian System
An electoral system in which the winning candidate must ahieve an overall majority of the votes cast in a single member constituency.
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Mixed system
An electoral system where a proportion of representatives are elected under a majoratarian/plurality system in single member constituencies, and the others are elected as 'additional members' using a proportional system in multi-member constituencies
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Proportional representation
An electoral system using multi-member constituencies in which an electoral formula is used to match the percentage of seats won by each party to the percentage of votes they won.
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Simple plurality system
An electoral system in which the candidate with the most votes ina single-member constituency wins.
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party system
The relationship between parties.
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two party system
The two main parties will gain the votes and and have a realistic chance of gaining power. They will normally alternate in power.
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two and a half party system
A smaller party exists alongside the main parties but is far from their equal.
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multi party system
Several parties are politically relevant- they win seats in the legislative assembly and are potential coalition partners and therefore coalitions and minority governments are the norm.
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Adversarial politics
Often found in a two party system in which the governing party is onfronted by an opposition party that offers a different policy programme and which is outwardly hostile towards the governent even when broadly the two parties agree.
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Safe seat
a constituency that normally elects an MP from the same party every election.
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Tactical voting
Voting for the candidate most likely to defeat the voter's least favoured candidate.
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Wastd vote
A vote for the winning candidate when they had already won the election or a vote for a losing candidate in a single member constituency
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Coalition government
Government made up of more than one political party.
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Split-ticket voting
The practice of voting for canditates from different parties in an election where an elector is permitted to cast more than one vote.
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Minority government
A government formed by a political party that did not gain the overall majority in the legistature.
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Electoral reform
Changes made to an electoral system or a change from one electoral system to an alterative.
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AB
Professional and managerial
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C1
White collar (non-manual) workers
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C2
Blue collar (manual) workers
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DE
semi-skilled, unskilled and those reliant on benefits.
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Class dealignment
The decline in the relationship between social class and voting.
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Core vote
Voters who vote for a specific party in every election and feel a strong attatchment to that party.
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Floating voters
Voters who don't always vote for the same party and may switch their vote from election to election.
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Partisan dealignment
The decline of people who identify with a specific political party.
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Socialisation
The process by which people gain their values and beliefs, usually from parents and friends.
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Rational choice voting
An approach to the study of politics that focuses on the actions of rational individuals who persue their own interests.
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Valance issue
A policy issue on which the main parties are in broad agreement, when there is an agreement voters make judgements about their relative competance and ability to deliver the desired outcomes. A party will campaign on valance issues that are competent
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Card 2

Front

the proportion of people who turn out to vote in an election.

Back

Turnout

Card 3

Front

A competative process in which a designated group of people, known as the electorate, select individuals who will fill particular posts. Elections are essential to a democratic society. The electorate in the uk consists of most adults.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Usually equated with rightfulness, a political system is legitimate when it is based on the consent of the people (winning an election gives a government legitimacy) Citizens within a democracy accept the lgitimacy of a government if it is lawful.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

When an individual acts on behalf of a larger group of people, for example a representative and their constituency and its constituents.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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