DT Glossary

These are note cards on all of the terms that one has to know for the DT IB exams higher and standard level.

Note: Options are not included!

  • Created by: Ivan
  • Created on: 30-01-13 20:02
Adaptation
An existing technology or solution to a problem in one field is used to provide a new idea for a solution in another
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Algorithm
A sequence of instructions to describe a set of actions
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Alloy
A mixture that contains at least one metal.
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Alternative Technology
a technology that involves new types of equipment or organizational forms, and which represents a viable alternative to the existing mainstream technologies today
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Amorphous Material
a solid that is not crystalline
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Analogue Signal
A signal that may change continuously to represent a physical property
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Analogy
Drawing on a similar situation for solutions
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Animation
the ability to link graphic screens together is such a way to simulate motionor a process
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Anthropometrics
The aspect of ergonomics that deals with the body measurments, particualrly those of size, strenght and physical capacity
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appropriate technology
Technology appropriate to the context in which it is applied
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Assembly line production
The mass production of a product via flow line based on the interchange -ability of parts, preprocessing of materials, standardization and work division
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Atom
the smallest part of an element that can exist chemically
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Automated Guided Vehicle
a robot vehicle that moves over a shop floor guided by means of painted lines, IR rays or cables laid beneath the surface
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Automation
a volume production process involving machines controlled by computers
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Batch Production
limited volume production
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Brainstorming
a group of people generating divergent ideas to try to solve a problem; the ideas may be random; no critisicm is allowed
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Brief
the formal starting point for the design of a product; it is a clarification of what a new product is expected to be and to do; the instruction to the designer from a client to take on a project
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Clean Technology
an approach to manufacturing to production which uses less resources and causes less enviornmental damage than an alternative means which it is economicaly competitive
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Composite
a mixture composed of two or more substances (materials) with one substance acting as the matrix or glue
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Compound
A substance formed by the combination of elements in fixed proportions; they may be bonded ionicaly of covalently
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(CAD) Computer-aided Design
the use of computers to aid the design process
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(CAM) Computer-aided Manufacturing
the use of computers to aid manufacturing
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(CNC) Computer Numerically Controlled
a numerical control system within which a dedicated, stored-program computer is used to perform some or all of the basic numerical control functions
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(CIM) Computer Integrated Manufacture
computer integrated manufactouring is the total integration of the various individual CAD, CNC, robotics, computer-aided process planning, computer-aided quality control and materials handling. In a fully developed CIM system a CAD system will be net
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Constructive Discontent
analysing a situation which would benefit from re-design, and working out a strategy for improving it
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Control System
a system which controls the operation of a machine or manufacturing process
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Convergent Thinking
the ability to analyse information in order to seclect an asnwer from alternatives
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Convergent Technology
the melding of media by converting them into digital format, thereby opening up new avenues of communication
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Copyright
the right in law to be the only producer (or seller) of a book, play, film, design, etc.
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Corporate Strategy
Long-term aims and objectives of a company and ways of achieving them by allocation of resources
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Cost-effectivness
the most efficient way of designing and producing a product from the manufacturer's point of view
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Craft Production
a small scale production process centered on manual skills
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Cuttin and Machining
cutting a material into shape and finishing it by machines
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Cybernetics
the acquisiton, processing and comunication of information and its use in controlling the behaviour of natural and manufactured system
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Density
the mass per unit volume of a material
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Design Family
the evolution of a design into a variety of products that will appeal to a wide range of customers
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Design for Disassembly
Designing a product so that when it becomes obsolete it can easily and economically be taken apart
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Design for Manufacture
the existing manufacturing capability is the dominant factor DfM. Designers design specifically for optimum use of capability
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Diffusion Into The Market Place
the wide acceptance (and sales) of a product
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Digital Signal
an encoded signal; the simplest being binary; often converted from analogue to discrete values (high, low or on,off)
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Divergent Thinking
using creative ability to produce a wide range of possible solutions to a problem
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Diversification
involves a company in both the development of new products and selling them to new markets
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Dominant Design
the design containing those implicit features of a product which are recognized as essential by a majority of manufacturers and purchasers
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Ductility
the ability of a material to be drawn or extruded into a wie or other extended shape
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Economy of Scale
Generally the larger the volume of production, the more fixed costs are balanced by variable costs and the better the unit price
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Electrical Resistivity
this is a measure of a material's ability to conduct electricity
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Entrepreneur
an individual commited to the development of a particular new product or process, and prepared to provide or persuade others to provide the necessary finance to turn the invention into an innovation
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Ergonome
a three-dimensional, physical, scaled model based on a specific percentile with moving parts. Used to establish spatial ergonomic consideration between people and product environments
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Ergonomics
the aplication of scientific information concerning the relationship of human beings to the design of objects, systems and environments
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Expert Appraisal
the reliance on the knowledge and the skills of an expert in the operation of the product
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Exploded Isometric Drawing
an isometric drawing of an object with more than one component which depicts how the parts of assemblies fit together
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Extrusion
forcing material through a shaped die to produce a shaped rod or tube of material
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Fibre Structure
a fibre structure is used to describe the elongation of the crystals in a cold worked metal, or any type of filament material from which yarns and fabrics are manufactured by spinning, weaving, knitting, bonding, etc.
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Fixed Costs
the costs that must be paid out before production starts, eg machinery; they do not change with the level of production
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Freehand Drawing
the spontaneous representation of ideas on paper without the use of technical aids
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Fuzzy Logic
a series of weighted algorithms or models programmed into a computer to simulate human thought
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Hardness
the resistance a material offers to penetration or scratching
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incremental design
small changes to the design of a product which seems trivial but the cumulative effect of these changes over a longer period can be very significant
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Injection Moulding
the direct introduction of molten plastic under pressure into a die which then cools rapidly allowing the formed object to be released from the mould
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Innovation
the business of putting an invention in the marketplace and making it a success
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Intermediate Technology
a relative term that stands between traditional and modern technology
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Invention
the process of discovering a principle; often resulting in a novel product
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Ion
a positively or negatively charged atom or molecule caused by the loss or gain of electrons from an atom or atoms
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Isometric Drawing
a three-dimensional representation of an object drawn with the horizontal plane at 30
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Joining
the putting together of two or more components or materials
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Just-in-Case (JIC)
a situation where a company keeps a small stock of rare components (or complete items) ot ones that take a long time to deliver, just in case of a rush order
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Just-in-Time (JIT)
a situation where a firm does not allocate space to the storage of components or complete items, but instead orders them when required
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Lamination
building ip a thick layer of material using thin layers of material joined with adhesives
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Lean Production
combining the advantages of craft and mass production while avoiding the high cost of the former and the inflexibility of the latter
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Life Cycle Analysis
the assessment of the effect a product has on the environment from the initial concept to disposal
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Literature Search
the use of consumer reports and newspaper items to follow historical development; sources: CDs' encyclopedias, newspapers, subject specific magazines
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Lone Inventor
an individual working outside or inside an organization who is committed to the invention of a novel product and often becomes isolated
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Manikin
a two-dimensional physical anthropometric model based on a specific percentile, which is used with drawings of the same scale as the model to consider relationship between an object and a person
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Manufacturing Process
a general tem for making products; it covers a range of techniques
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Manufacturing Technique
a specific manufacturing term, sometimes relating to one materialgroup only
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Market Development
finding new applications for existing products thereby opening up new markets
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Market Penetration
increasing sales to existing customers or finding new customers for an existing product
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Market Pull
the initial impetus for the development of a new product generated by a demand from the market
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Market Sector
a broad way of categorizing the kinds of market the company is aiming for
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Market Segmentation
markets divide up into smaller segments there the urchasers have similar characteristics and tastes
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Mass Customization
a sophisticated CIM system which manufactures products to individual customer orders; the benefits of economy of scale
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Mechanization
a volume production process involving machines controlled by humans
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Memory
a digital storage device
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Molecule
two or more atoms which are normally bonded together covalently
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Multi-National Company
a company which not only trades internationaly but has manufacturing outlets in a number of countries
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Non-Renewable Resources
resources that too long for natural process to replenish them
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Optical Fibre
a cable that can transmit huge quantaties of digital information at very high speed in both directions by means of ligh waves
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Patent
an agreement from a government office to give someone the righ to make or sell a new invention for certain number of years
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Percentile Range
the proportion of population with a dimension at or less than a given value
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Performance Test
observations and their record of users
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Perspective Drawing
a three-dimensional drawing which realistically represents an object by utilizing foreshortening and vanishing points
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Planned Obsolescence
a conscious act either to ensure a continuing market or to ensure that safety factors and new technologies can be incorporated into later versions of the product
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Plastic Deformation
the permanent deformation of a solid subjected to a stress
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Product Champion
an influential individual, usually, usualy working within an organization, who develops an enthusiasm for a perticular idea or invention and "champions" it within the organization
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Product Cycle (Product Life Cycle)
this refers to a product's introduction, growth maturity and decline and to its general pattern of production and profitability
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Product Development
the creation of a new, modified or updated products aimed mainly at a company's existing customers
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Pure Substance
a substance made of only one element or compound
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Radical Design
where a compleatly new product is devised by going back to the roots of a problem and thinking about a solution in a different way
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Renewable Resources
resources that are naturally replenished in a short time
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Repetitive Stress Injury (RSI)
a disease of a particular part of the musculo-skeletal system produced by gradual build up of tiny amounts of damage on a daily basis as a result of repetitive motions or sustained postures
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Robot
a mechanical device controlled by computer that can perform human like tasks
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Robust Designs
flexible designs which can be adapted to changing technical and market requirments
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Satelite Comunication
telecomunication whereby radio waves are transmitted from one part of the globe to a satellite in space which amplifies the signal and retransmits it to a receiver in another part of the globe
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Seasoning
the process of drying ou timber after conversion
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Shaping
the process by which materials are formed into shape by particular techniques
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Sintering
the fusing of solid particles together by heat and preasure without compleatly liquefying the particles
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Smart Card
a small electronic device about the size of a credit card that contains electronic memory and possibly an embedded integrated circuit
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Specification
a set of precise limits for the complete range of performance requirements for the design of a product
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Sustainable Development
development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
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Techo-cautious
someone who needs some convincing before embracing technological change
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Technology Push
where the impetus for a new design emanates from a technological development
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Technophile
someone who immediately welcomes a technological change
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Technophobe
someone who resists all technological change
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Telecommunications
any form of data transmission, from voice to video
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Tensile Strength
the ability of a material to withstand pulling forces
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Thermal Conductivity
a measure of how fast heat is conducted through a slab of material with a given temperature difference across the slab
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Thermal Expansion
a measure of the degree of increase in dimensions when an object is heated; this cna be measured by an increase in length, area, volume. The expansivity can be measured as the fractional increase in dimension per Kelvin increase in temperature
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Toughness
the ability of a material to resist the propagation of cracks
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User research
obtaining users's responses
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User Trial
the observation and analysis of comments made by people who have used a particular product
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User-Centred Design
a design methodology in which designers do not reply on their tacit knowledge of the user or user group but instead use the users as a resource to increase their understanding
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Value for Money
a concept that takes account of the relation between what something, eg a product, is worth and the cash amount spent on it
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Variable Costs
costs that vary with output, e.g.: raw materials or fuel
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Virtual Reality
the ability to simulate a real situation on a screen and interact with it in a near natural way
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Volume Production
Continuous flow, large-scale production
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Wasting
the process by which hand tools and machines are used to fabricate materials by the removal of waste
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Weaving
the carrying of a continuos thread back and forth acress a set of length-wise threads to form an interlaced fabric
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Yield Stress
the stress at which plastic deformation begins
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Young's Modulus
stiffness of a material
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A sequence of instructions to describe a set of actions

Back

Algorithm

Card 3

Front

A mixture that contains at least one metal.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

a technology that involves new types of equipment or organizational forms, and which represents a viable alternative to the existing mainstream technologies today

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

a solid that is not crystalline

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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