Drug Pharmacology Revision

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  • Created by: Sarah
  • Created on: 13-03-17 16:42
what does pilocarpine do? what receptor does it bind to?
slows heart rate, muscarinic receptor
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what is atropine?
a muscarinic receptor antagonist prevents pilocarpine from working
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what do muscarinic receptors on the heart do?
slow the heart down
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what are 3 drugs that target ion channels?
lignocaine, apamin and dihydropyridines (nifedipine)
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what are the 4 most common drug receptors?
1) Ion channels 2) enzymes 3) carriers/transporters 4) receptors
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what does lignocaine do?
is a local anaesthetic, binds to Na channels on pain sensing neurons, decreases pain.
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where does apamin come from?
bee sting
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what does apamin target?
ion channels
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what is apamin structurally?
short peptide, one of the smallest toxins
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what does apamin do?
binds to potassium ion channels and reduces the frequency of action potentials
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what do dihydropyridines (nifedipine) do?
target calcium ion channels inhibits + blocks found in SM of heart, doesn't contracr as much reduces bp
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what drugs target enzymes?
acetylsalicyclic acid (aspirin), pargyline+clorgyline + captopril
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what do pargyline and clorgyline break inhibit?
MAO (monoamine oxidase)
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what do pargyline and clorgyline stop being break down?
monoamines such as adrenaline + serotonin (neurotransmitters)
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why could pargyline+clorgyline be useful in treating depression?
blocks the enxzyme that breaks down transmitters concentration of transmitters stays high for longer
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what is captopril used to treat?
hypertension and some types of congestive heart failure
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what is captopril?
an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor
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what is acetylsalicic acids other name?
aspirin
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what does aspirin do?
Aspirin inhibits cyclooxygenate enzyme which produce lipid mediators, messengers and signal mediators, when inhibited no more inflammatory response brings down swelling, pain and fever
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what does angiotensin 2 do?
vasoconstrictor, releases aldesterone (more uptake of salt + water from kidneys -> high bp) from adrenal cortex, constricts blood vessels
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what do ACE inhibitors do?
stop angiotensin converting enzyme so less angiotensin 2, not as much water + salt uptake, less constriction
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why are ACE inhibitors used to prevent blood clots?
angiotensin 2 inhibits tissue plasminogen activator so plasminogen--> plasmin does not happen, plasmin dissolves blood clots
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whatare 2 drugs that target transporters?
fluoxetine and digoxin
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how does fluoxetine (prozac) work?
by inhibiting serotin reuptake, targets serotionin transporters in the brain, stops transporter from working so serotonin work at rec longer
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why is fluoxetine more favoured than MAO inhibitors such as paragyline+clorgyline to treat depression?
less side effects and more specific in action
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where is digoxin found?
foxglove flowers
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what does digoxin target?
sodium/potassium transporter ATPase in the heart
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how does digoxin work?
stops Na/K ATPase in heart, sodium builds up in heart cells, knock on effect as another transporter swaps sodium for calcium, build up of Ca in heart cells = more contractions
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what is digoxin used to treat? what effect does it have on the heart?
heart failure and fibrillation as slows down heart rate
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how many proteins in the human genome did they find that we can target?
600-1500
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examples of opiates?
heroin and morphine
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examples of drugs that bind to muscarinic receptors?
pilocarpine, atropine
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examples of drugs that bind to nicotinic receptors?
nicotine, curare
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what is atropine?

Back

a muscarinic receptor antagonist prevents pilocarpine from working

Card 3

Front

what do muscarinic receptors on the heart do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what are 3 drugs that target ion channels?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what are the 4 most common drug receptors?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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