Discovering Topic 3: Vision

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  • Created by: Chookie
  • Created on: 17-05-17 14:54
What is the black hole in the eye
Pupil
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What is the coloured part of the eye?
The iris
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What is the white part of the eye?
The sclera
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Just go look at a diagram of an eye
study the diagram
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What focuses light
The lense
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Where is an image upside down in the back of an eye ? (where light focuses)
the fovea
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What is near near-sightedness called?
Myopia
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What is far-sightnedness called?
Hyperopia
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What happens with Myopia (near-sightedness) ?
The image focuses in front of the fovea
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What happens with Hyperopia (far-sightedness)?
The image focuses behind the fovea
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What type of lens fixes Myopia (near-sightedness)?
Concave lens
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What type of lens fixes Hyperopia (far-sightnedness)?
Convex lens
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What are the two types of photoreceptors?
Rods and cons
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What are rods responsible for?
Vision at low light levels
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What are cones responsible for?
Vision at higher light levels and colour vision
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Do rods help with colour vision?
no
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What are the three types of cones?
S-cones, M-cones and L-cones.
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What is the difference between the three types of cones?
They are all sensitive to different wavelengths of light
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What wave lengths are S-cones sensitive to?
Short wave lengths, 450-630nm wave lengths.
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What wave lengths are M-cones sensitive to?
Medium wave lengths, 500-700nm wave lengths
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What wave lengths are L-cones sensitive to?
564-580nm wave lengths
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What colour are L-cones better at seeing? What colours can they see?
Red / Green, Yellow, Orange, Red
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What colour are M-cones better at seeing? What colours can they see?
Green/ Light blue, Yellow
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What colour are S-cones better at seeing? / What colours can they see?
Blue / Blue, Purple, Green
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Where is information from your right visual field processed?
In the left side of your primary visual cortex
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Where is information from your left visual field processed?
In the right side of your primary visual cortex
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What is the iris?
A flat, coloured, ring-shaped membrane
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What is the pupil?
The opening of the iris, seen as a black hole.
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What is the Sclera?
A dense, white, fibrous membrane that is part of the external covering of the eyeball
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What visible part of your eye does the cornea cover?
The pupil and iris
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What is the iris and pupil responsible for doing?
The iris controls the pupil letting in more or less light as needed
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What is the retina?
A layer at the back of the eyeball that contains cells sensitive to light which triggers nerve impulses to send information to the brain.
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What is the lens?
The lens can change the focal distance of the eye by changing its shape. It focuses the lights rays which pass through it to create clear images.
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What does the lens work with?
The cornea to refract or bend light
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What is the fovea?
A small depression in the retina of the eye where visual acuity is highest. The center of the field of vision is focused in this area
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Where are retinal cones particularly concentrated?
In the fovea
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What is the optic nerve?
A nerve which transmits impulses to the brain from the retina at the back of the eye
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With Myopia ( nearsightedness) how do close and distant objects appear?
Close objects are clear but distant objects are blurry
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With Hyperopia (far-sightedness) how do close and distant objects appear?
Close objects are blurry but distant objects are clear
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What parts of the eye might be faulty to cause Myopia and Hyperopia?
The shape of the eyeball in relation to the cornea and lens
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Myopia is caused in general by the eyeball being to
long
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Hyperopia is caused by the eyeball being to
shot
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What do photoreceptors do?
Convert particles of light into electrical signals
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Does everyone have the same number of rods and cones?
no
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What three terms are used to describe a colour?
Hue, Brightness, Saturation
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What does the colour opponent theory suggest?
That our brain records differences between the responses of cones in order to determine the colour. It does this by using three opponent channels
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What are the three colour opponent channels from colour opponent theory?
Red vs Green, Blue vs Yellow, White vs Black
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What is the technical name for the side of your eye near your nose? ( (right side of left eye and left side of right eye)
The Nasal retina
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What is the technical name for the side of your eye near your temple? (the left side of your left eye and the right side of your right eye)
The temporal retina
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Where does the information about your left visual field come from?
The left nasal retina and the right temporal retina
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Where does the information about your right visual field come from?
The left temporal retina and the right nasal retina
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Where does the information from the nasal retinas cross?
The optic chiasm
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Where does the information about your visual fields go on its way to the primary visual cortex?
To the lateral geniculate nucleus
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What is a receptive field?
An area (of the body) in which stimulation leads to response of a particular sensory neuron
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What is a cortical simple cell?
A cell within the primary cortex which responds to an objects orientation
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How many layers does the Lateral Geniculate nucleus have ?
6
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How many Lateral Geniculate nucleuses are there?
2. One on the left side of the brain and one on the right.
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Information from the right visual field and the left visual field go to what lateral geniculate nucleus?
Information from the right visual field foes to the left nucleus and information from the left visual field goes to the right nucleus
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What do layers 1 and 2 of the Lateral Geniculate nucleus receive information from?
Rods
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What do layers 3-6 of the Lateral Geniculate nucleus receive information from?
Cones
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What is the name of layers 3-6 of the Lateral Geniculate nucleus?
Parvocellular
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What is the name of layers 1-2 of the Lateral Geniculate nucleus?
Magnocellular
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How many copies of an image does the Lateral Geniculate nucleus produce?
3 (3 on the right side, 3 on the left side)
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What are the other names for the primary visual cortex?
V1 or Striate cortex
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After the primary visual cortex where does visual information go?
Through the extra-striate or prestriate cortex
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What are the visual areas located in the extra-striate or prestriate called?
V2, V3, V3A, V4, V5, V5A
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What does V(number) stand for? (for example V4)
One of the visual areas in the brain
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What do visual areas do?
Each area is retinotopically organised meaning they map the visual information from the retina to neurons in the brain, making a 2D representation of the image
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What is the V5/MT (5th visual area) responsible for?
It is responsible for motion perception
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What is the V4/MT (4th visual area) responsible for?
It is responsible for colour
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What provides evidence for the different visual areas of the brain?
PET (Positron emission tomography) studies
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What part of the temporal and occipital lobe is responsible for recognising faces?
The Fusiform gyrus
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What is Cerebral Hemiachromatopsia? (visual disorder)
When there is a selective loss of colour vision. You can only see colour from one side of the visual field. There is selective damage in the occipital lobe and specific damage to the V4 area of the brain.
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What is Akinetopsia? (visual disorder)
When there is a selective impairment of motion perception. With this you cannot tell when cars/things are moving so they appear to jump from place to place.
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What is Prosopagnosia?
When you are unable to recognise faces
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What does the dorsal stream control?
Actions
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What does the ventral stream control?
Awareness of objects and consciousness
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What is Blindsight?
When there is damage to the V1 area of the brain. People are not consciously aware of objects around them, but are able to subconsciously avoid them
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What is visual form agnosia?
When there is damage to the ventral stream areas. There is intact action control but impaired visual recognition (for example being unable to tell if something is straight.
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What is visual neglect?
When after damage to one side of the brain there is a lack of awareness and knowledge of one side of the visual field
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Can humans tell the difference between the figure (foreground) and the background?
Yes
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What are the 5 Gestalt principles?
Proximity, Similarity, Good continuation, Closure and Common fate
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What is Proximity? (in relation to the Gestalt Principles? )
That when elements are placed close together they tend to be perceived as a group
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What is similarity? (in relation to the Gestalt Principles)
When objects look similar to one another they will be perceived as a group
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What is good continuation (in relation to the Gestalt Principles)?
That we have a preference for continuous figures. We will often see images as flowing when they are not.
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What is closure? (in relation to the Gestalt Principles)
That even when an object is incomplete, if enough of the shape is indicated people fill in the gaps, to perceive the whole shape.
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What is common fate? (in relation to the Gestalt Principles)
When we perceive visual elements that move in the same speed and/or direction as parts of a single stimulus
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What are two theories about object recognition?
Template models and Recognition by-components
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What is the template model theory?
That we can detect patterns by matching visual input with a set of templates and if any of the templates matches we can then deduce what the input is.
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What is a problem with the template model theory?
That it is not powerful enough for general object recognition and some things can look similar to others.
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What is Translational invariance?
When an object is moved to a new position in the environment, a different portion of the retina is stimulated.
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What is size invariance?
that objects can be recognised despite variations in actual or apparent size.
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What is Rotational invariance
That people are capable of recognising objects from many different vantage points, even views that have never before been seen.
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Does the template model theory account for size, translational and rotational invariance?
yes
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Who came up with the recognition-by-components theory?
Biderman (1987)
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What is Biederman's recognition-by-components theory?
That recognition involves recognising object elements (geons) and their configuration
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According to Biederman, how many Geons are there?
36
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What is the name of the basic shapes which complex objects are made up of according to Biederman?
Geons
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Does the recognition-by -components theory account for size, translational and rotational invariance?
yes
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What gives us 3D perception?
Depth cues
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What are the two types of depth cues?
Monocular and Binocular
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What are Bioncular depth cues?
Because the eyes are apart they give slightly different images. The difference between these images (retinal disparity) can be used as a cue for depth/distance
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What are Monocular vision cues?
As we still have depth perception with one eye there are other cues which can inform us about depth.
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What are the Monocular vision cues?
Motion parallax, Pictorial(interposition/occlusion, texture, haze, elevation, size, perspective and shading)
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What is Motion parallax?
That when we move forwards rapidly we perceive different speeds in objects passing by.
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What is interposition/Occlusion? (A Monocular Pictorial depth cue)
That when one object is blocked by another it can be used to provide information on the distance
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What is texture? (A Monocular Pictorial depth cue)
The level of detail you can see in an image. The closer the image is to you, the more detail you will see.
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What is haze? (A Monocular Pictorial depth cue)
The fact that hazy weather can alter your perception of depth. Things seem closer in clear weather than they do in hazy weather.
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What is elevation? (A Monocular Pictorial depth cue)
If an object is closer to the horizon line it is seen as further away, we can use this to work out the height of objects.
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What is size? (A Monocular Pictorial depth cue)
The tendency to perceive objects as staying the same size, despite your changes in distance from the object
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What is perspective? (A Monocular Pictorial depth cue)
The property of parallel lines converging at infinity allows us to reconstruct the relative distance of different parts of a scene.
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What is shading? (A Monocular Pictorial depth cue)
That the nearer an object is to a light source, the brighter its surface
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the coloured part of the eye?

Back

The iris

Card 3

Front

What is the white part of the eye?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Just go look at a diagram of an eye

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What focuses light

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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