movement in and out of cells

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movement in and out of cells
can occur via diffusion, osmosis, active transport and phagocytosis
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diffusion
the net movement of moelcules within a gas or liquid from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration (down a concentration gradient) as a result of their random movement until an equilibrium is reached
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equilibrium
the condition in which all acting influences are balanced or canceled by equal opposing forces, resulting in a stable system
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concentration gradient
the process of particles, which are sometimes called solutes, moving through a solution or gas from an area with a higher number of particles to an area with a lower number of particles, typically separated by a membrane
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partially permeable membrane
a membrane that is permeable to the small molecules of water and certain solutes but does not allow the passage of large solute molecules
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kinetic energy
the energy of movement
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adaptations to speed up diffusion
diffusion distances are short, so the molecules won't have far to travel, concentration gradients are maintained so an equilibrium is not reached, and diffusion surfaces are large to increase the surface area molecules can diffuse across
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osmosis
the diffusion of water molecules from a region of higher concentration of water molecules to a region of lower concentration of water molecules down a water potential gradient through a partially permeable membrane
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water potential
how many water molecules a solution contains
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water potential gradient
exists between the two solutions, and water molecules can flow down the gradient from right to left
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shrinking and expanding of plant cells
if water enters a plant cell by osmosis the cytoplasm will swell but only until it pushes against the cellulose cell wall, and the cell will not be permanently damaged, and if water leaves a plant cell by osmosis, the cytoplasm will shirnk
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shrinking and expanding of animal cells
if water enters an animal cell the cell takes in water, and bursts (haemolytic) and if it leaves the cell, the cell loses water, shrinks and becomes crenated
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active transport
can move molecules against a concentration gradient but requires energy and involves protein carriers in membranes
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carriers
protein molecules in the cell surface membrane that pick up and carry particles across the membrane
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phagocytosis
some particles are too big to diffuse across the membrane, so some cells have developed a method where the particles are engulfed by the cell surface membrane around them
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Card 2

Front

the net movement of moelcules within a gas or liquid from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration (down a concentration gradient) as a result of their random movement until an equilibrium is reached

Back

diffusion

Card 3

Front

the condition in which all acting influences are balanced or canceled by equal opposing forces, resulting in a stable system

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

the process of particles, which are sometimes called solutes, moving through a solution or gas from an area with a higher number of particles to an area with a lower number of particles, typically separated by a membrane

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

a membrane that is permeable to the small molecules of water and certain solutes but does not allow the passage of large solute molecules

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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