Diagnosis Of Mental Disorders (The 4 D's) & Evaluation

Define Clinical Psychology
The diagnosis, explanation and treatment of mental illness
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What is a prognosis?
A prediction made from the diagnosis on how the disorder will develop with or with out treatment
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Name 3 issues with diagnosis
1) When to draw the line on abnormal behavior, defining when abnormal behavior becomes a problem, 2) Sometimes hard for a patient to describe symptoms, 3) It is several factors that play a role in diagnosis, so it is time consuming
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What are the 4 D's?
Distress, Deviance, Danger, Dysfunctional
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What are the 4D's used for?
Clinicians use the 4d's as a method to come up with a clinical diagnosis and then find possible treatment
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What is deviance?
Behaviors and emotions that are deemed unacceptable by social norms, someone who displays this are defined deviant.
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How can you statistically measure deviance?
Standard deviation, if the persons behavior/emotions are rare (deviating from the mean) they can be defined as deviant
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What is a problem with measuring deviance statistically?
It is reductionist, doesn't actually take into account the persons persona etc, reduced their behavior to a number
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How can you socially/culturally measure deviance?
Comparing the individuals behavior to the social norms and classing the behavior as abnormal if it deviates quite a bit from the social norms
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What is an issue with socially/culturally measuring deviance?
Social norms deviate across age, gender, situation and history
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What is dysfunction?
Whether the abnormal behavior interferes with everyday living, for example paying bills or going to work
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Why is dysfunction objective?
Certain facts state that certain behavior as dysfunctional but to the actual individual it may actually help them, eg doing drugs may help an artist with inspiration, where as to others it may look like its dysfunctional
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What is distress?
Everyone experiences stress but distress is where the stress becomes inappropriate and persistsand hinders the persons everyday life
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How is judging distress subjective?
The individual could feel like they don't need any help whereas to a doctor they may seem like they need help
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What id danger in terms of abnormal behavior?
Whether the behavior harms the individual or others around them
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What is the 5th D?
Duration- Its all about the duration to which the individual experiences the 4 D's, meaning if they have had it for a while it may need psychiatric attention
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Name an issue of social control?
Once a patient is diagnosed with a certain disorder, depending on the dangers of it, they can be treated out of their own will
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Name an issue of subjectivity
Everyone is different so the clinician has to consider how well the patient is coping
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Issues of reliability
100% honesty is needed from the patient in order to produce a reliable diagnosis
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Standardisation in diagnosis
Standardised test when diagnosing a patient must be used in order to stop clinicians from making personal judgement
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What is inter-reliability in clinical psychology?
The degree of agreement and consistency between clinicians
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Patient factors effecting reliability
The patient needs to be 100% honest and also patients experience shame or memory loss with their condition which can also effect the reliability.
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Clinician factors- retrospective data
Diagnosis relies on retrospective date, so the clinician makes the diagnosis after the patient has told them all the info, relying on memory of clinician
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Clinician factors- Subjectivity
Diagnosis can sometimes be down to the subjective judgement of the clinician, not all clinicians agree with each other, it is dependant on things like training, experience etc
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Individual differences- culture
Some disorders are cultural specific, clinicians can ignore cultural differences and generalise it to things like anxiety and depression, in addition people may experience cultural shame when talking to a clinician of different culture
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What is concurrent validity? Eg?
To see if diagnosis made by one technique agrees with the diagnosis made another way. Eg, comparing ICD and DSM
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What is aetiological validity? Eg?
Seeing is diagnosis matches family history, Eg looking at family history and seeing any past disorders
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What is predictive validity? Eg?
To see if the diagnosis will respond with a certain treatment. Eg, knowing the future course of disorder and applying that to treatment
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Clinician bias
Clinicians diagnosis affected by bias, eg female more likely to be diagnosed with depression then male
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What is comorbidity and give an example
When 2 disorders frequently occur simultaneously the disorders are co-morbid, eg, anxiety and depression
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is a prognosis?


A prediction made from the diagnosis on how the disorder will develop with or with out treatment

Card 3


Name 3 issues with diagnosis


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Card 4


What are the 4 D's?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are the 4D's used for?


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