Design Argument

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Which one of Aquinas' five ways does the design argument originate from?
Fifth Way - Argument from Design
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What is the first step of the design argument?
There are beings w/o knowledge that act for ends
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What is the second step of the design argument?
If a being w/o knowledge acts for an end, then it must be being directed by a being w/ knowledge + intelligence.
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What is the third step of the design argument?
Therefore there must be a being w/ knowledge + intelligence -> God.
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What was the title of William Paley's 1802 book where he furthered Aquinas' argument?
Natural Theology
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What is the "design qua purpose" part of Paley's argument?
Universe designed to fulfill a purpose
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What is the "design qua regularity" part of Paley's argument
Universe behaves acc. to some order
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Explain Paley's watchmaker analogy.
Man finds rock + watch → stone has no reason for existing, watch does + must need watchmaker. In same way - universe complexities → creator God.
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Explain Paley's analogy of the human eye.
Made w/ specific purpose - God must've designed it for this
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What did Paley use to evidence the universe as behaving acc. to an order?
Relationships betw. planets (couldn't happen w/o God)
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What is the anthropic principle?
Theory that laws of universe are fine-tuned for human life
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What was the name of the book in which Frederick Tennant outlined the anthropic principle?
Philosophical Theology (1930)
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What is the weak anthropic principle?
Humans exist b/c universe has neccesary properties for us to exist
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What is the participatory anthropic principle?
Universe wouldn't exist unless there were people to see it.
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Give one criticism of the participatory anthropic principle
Universe has evidence of existing pre-humanity.
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What is the strong anthropic principle?
Properties of universe = neccesary, universe = constructed.
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Give one criticism of the anthropic principle.
Infinite no. of universes → coincidence being likely given many possibilities.
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What is the aesthetic principle?
Nothing in evolution theories explains human ❤ for beautiful things; must've been given by designer God
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Why does Richard Swinburne accept the anthropic principle?
Science CAN explain fine-tuning, but not its coordination over long periods of time.
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How did David Hume criticise the design argument's analogy of God and a house?
If we see a house we know there must've been a builder, but God ≠ house - analogies not similr
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What alternative explanation did Hume give for evidence of design?
Animals w/o adaptations die - design exists due to need for survival.
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Name three criticisms made by Hume of the design argument.
Universe could be compared to a rock, coming about after millions of years. No experience of world-making, no idea how it came about. Design argument -> human view of God.
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Why did Immanuel Kant reject design arguments?
Humans naturally categorise/order own experiences - could be projecting order onto world.
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Why did J.S Mill reject design arguments?
Evil proves God doesn't exist, or does but isn't omnibenevolent
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What does Richard Dawkins believe causes variation in beings?
Random DNA mutations - no spark distinguishing life
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What quote from Richard Dawkins shows his belief in the idea that living and non-living material are the same?
"Life is just bytes and bytes and bytes of digital information."
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Why is Richard Dawkins against the anthropic and aesthetic principles?
Believes genes are responsible for human life.
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What quote from Richard Dawkins shows his belief that science is better than religion as its principles can be put into practice?
“Airplanes built by scientific principles work…airplanes built to tribal mythological specifications don’t.”
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Why can Dawkins' previous "airplanes" quote be criticised?
Airplanes can be tested; life origins can only be guessed at thru inductive reasoning.
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How did Ian Barbour criticise Richard Dawkins?
If Dawkins objects to religious belief limiting scientific discovery, he shouldn’t allow science to dictate usefulness of relig.
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How did Alistair McGrath criticise Dawkins?
Paley’s POV not typical of modern Christian thought – Dawkins is criticising outdated idea which is easy to fault.
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Card 2

Front

What is the first step of the design argument?

Back

There are beings w/o knowledge that act for ends

Card 3

Front

What is the second step of the design argument?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the third step of the design argument?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the title of William Paley's 1802 book where he furthered Aquinas' argument?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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