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What is demography?
describe the study of population and its changes
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Where does most the information come from?
the office of national statistics from the national census
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Name the characteristics included as demographics
Population size, Age structure, Births, fertility rates, deaths, immigration, Emigration
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What is the British population now?
65-70 mil
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What was the birth rate per 1000 in 1901?
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What was the birth rate per 1000 in 2013?
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What was the TFR 1901?
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What was the TFR in 2013?
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What was the death rate per 1000 in 1901?
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What was the death rate per 1000 in 2013?
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What was the Life expectancy in 1901?
45 years
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What was the Life expectancy in 2013 for men and women?
men - 78.7 men
women - 82.6
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Birth rate
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What is the birth rate?
the number of live births per 1000 of the population per year
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When was the total fertility rate?
is the average number of children women have in their fertile years
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Generally, what has happened to the birth rate and to the TFR?
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What was the birth rate in 1901? (remember per 1000)
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What was the birth rate in 2005? (remember per 1000)
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In what years were there baby booms?
1921, 1945-1950, late 1960's
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Give some reasons for the baby booms?
After the war (starting families) baby boomers children, women more sexually liberal
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What years were there birth declines?
Late 70's, 2001, pre-war and interwar years
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provide a few reasons
less men due to war, wall street crash, changing women's position (equal pay act, maternity pat, contraception and abortion)
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Reasons for the change in the Birth rate (4)
changes in women's position, the decline in infant mortality, children are now an economic liability, child-centredness
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Name some of the major changes in women's position during the 20th C.
Legal equality with men, increased educational opportunities (girls now do better than boys), more women in employment, changes in attitudes to family life and women's role, access to abortion and reliable contraception (giving women control over their f
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How have these changed women's outlook on life and relating to birth rate?
they don't just have to be a mother and housewife but have other possibles in life and thus may choose to delay childbearing and not to have children at all.
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In 2006, .... in 5 women aged 45 were childless, ....... the number of 20 years earlier
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Who claims the pattern of decreased fertility has become socially acceptable and large families have now become as socially unacceptable or deviant?
Harper (2012)
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Why do many sociologists believe that the fall in IMR leads to a fall in the birth rate?
if many infants die, parents have more children to replace those who has been lost but, if infants survive, they have fewer of them
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Provide some reasons why infants are more likely to survive?
medical improvements, vaccinations, and improved antenatal services
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Why until the late 19th C. were children economic assets to their parents?
because they could be sent out to work from an early age to earn an income
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However, why have children now become and economic liability?
laws banning child labor, introducing compulsory schooling and raising the school leaving age so rely on their parents financially for longer and longer
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Thus why do children have less children?
due to financial pressures
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how much money does it take to raise a child from 0-18?
240 K
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What are childrens postion in the family?
focal point
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Provide an example of children being the focal point
active in many decisions
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What has society encouraged as a whole a shift from to?
'quantity' over 'quality'
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Therefore, why do parents have fewer children?
to lavish more attention and resources on them
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Impact of changes in fertility and birth Rates
family, public services and dependency ratio
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Due to women having less children, what are they more likely to do ?
to work - creating a duel family couple
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Why is this postive for children haveing less siblings ?
greater time with parents
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However, what is the negative impact on children?
lonelier fewer siblings, greater time in childcare as women working
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However, Why would NR think the decline in the fertility and birthrate would negatively impact the family?
negative socialization for children - roles not biological
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explain Public service's impact
fewer schools, maternity and maternity leave cut, child health services, and types of houses built
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However, what might the government do due to decreased fertility rates in terms of schools?
may not reduce ht number of schools but make larger class sizes instead
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Why will the birth rate of children reduce the 'burden of dependency?
because children are a large part of the dependency ratio on the working population
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Death rates
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What is it meant by the death rate?
number of deaths per 1000 of the population per year
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What does it mean by the term infant mortality rate?
number of infants who die before their 1st birthday, per 1000 babies born alive per year
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provide some reasons for fluctuations in the death rate for the past 100 years
war, poor health, food prices increase, introduction in the welfare state, 1918 Spanish flu, economic depression
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According to Tranter, what was the main reason for the decline in the death rate from 1850 to 1970? (health reasons)
Fall in infectious disease, measles, small pox, Diptheria, TB vaccines
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By the late 1950's, what has been the main cause of death in terms of diseases?
cancers, heart disease, 'diseases of affluence' eg. Obeasity
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factors that have led to decreasing in death rate (5)
Improved nutrition, medical improvements, social changes, public health measure, smoking and diet
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Who argues that improved nutrition accounted for up to hold the reduction in death rates
McKeowen (1972)
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For example, what does Mckeowen argue improved nutrition helped reduce the number of deaths from which disease?
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How does better nutrition increase resistance to infection?
increased the survival changes of those who become infected as better nutrition increased resistance
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Provide some examples as after the 1950's have improved medical knowledge, techniques and organisation ?
antibiotics, blood transfusion, maternity services a and setting up the NHS (1948)
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Name some of the social changes in the 20th C that have led to the reduced death rate
the decline in more dangerous manual occupations such as mining, smaller families reduce the rate of transmission of infection, greater public knowledge if the causes of illness lifestyle changes, including exercise and smoking and higher incomes allowing
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What helped led to the 20th C a range of public health improvements?
more central and effective government with the necessary powers to pass and enforce laws
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NAmes some of these improvements in public health measures
improvements to housing (drier, ventilation, less overcrowded) purer drinking water, clean air acts and laws to combat the alteration of food and drink
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What lifestyle change has contributed to a fall in the death rate?
reduction in the number of people smoking
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But, what was replaced smoking as the new lifestyle epidemic?
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in 2012, what amount of adults were obese in the UK?
one quater
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But, why have deaths from obesity still remained low?
because of drug therapies
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How may changes in roles from decreased death rate?
women may be expected to care for aging loved ones
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Why might family types change to be more extended?
elderly move in with family but this may mean children have greater time with grandparents and can help with childcare but, they may be close to death
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Life expectancy and ageing population
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Define life expectancy
How long on average a person in a given year can be expected to live
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Define ageing population
people are living longer,
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How many babies is it estimated will live to their 100th birthday
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What is there more of now, people over 60 or people under 16?
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What was the average life expectancy was low 1900?
medical treatments not as advanced, public measures not advanced, less likely to die in infancy today
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Who is more likely to die at age 65?
W/C rather than the W/C
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Men in unskilled labour are ... x more likely to die before 65?
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Name some other reasons why W/C have a shorter life expectancy?
poor housing, diet and health
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Who lives longer, men or women?
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However, why is the gap narrowing?
women are now in employment
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What percentage of households are 1 pensioner?
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In what part of the country do people have a shorter life expectancy?
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What does Walker argue?
that living in the poorest areas die 7 years ealier than the richest
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What 3 factors have resulted in an aging population?
Reduction in the birthrate, reduction in the death rate, medical improvements, declining fertility
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What are the 3 impacts from an ageing population?
Single pensioner households, dependency ratio, public services
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What is the number of household that now are single person?
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is demography?


describe the study of population and its changes

Card 3


Where does most the information come from?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Name the characteristics included as demographics


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is the British population now?


Preview of the front of card 5
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