Deindividuation

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  • Created by: Emilyio
  • Created on: 17-04-16 17:51
(A01) Gustave Le Bon 1895
Classic crowd theory, described how an individual was transformed when part of a crowd.
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(A01) Name three factors that mean the "collective mind" takes possesion of the individuals mind
Anonymity, Suggestibility and Contagion
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(A01) A consequence of this being...
individual loses self-control and becomes capable of acting in a way that goes against personal or social norms.
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(A01) What is deindividuation?
A psychological state characterised by lowered self-evaluation and decreased concerns about evaluation by others. Leading to an increase in behaviour that would normally be inhibited by personal or social norms.
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(A01) What is Disinhibition?
removal of the normal inhibitions concerning aggression
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(A01) Who created Deindividuation (DID)?
Zimbardo 1969
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(A01) What factors does Zimbardo 1969 state leads to deindividuation?
Anonymity, and altered consciousness due to drugs or alcohol.
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(A01) Is deindividuation antisocial or prosocial?
Both, however most of the research has been exclusive on antisocial behaviour.
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(A01) Process of - anonymity
being anonymous (and thus unaccountable) in a crowd has the psychological consequence of reducing inner restraints and increasing behaviours that are normally inhibited. Being part of a crowd can diminish awareness of our own individuality.
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(A01) Conditions that increase anonymity also minimise concerns about...
evaluation by others, and so weaken the normal barriers to antisocial behaviour that are based on guilt or shame.
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(A01) Anonymity research - Zimbardo 1969
carried out a series of experiments that were mre instrumental in the development of deindividuation.
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(A01) Anonymity research - Rehm et al 1987
randomly assigned German schoolchildren to handball teams of 5 people. Half teams wearing the same orange shirts, and all other half wearing casual clothes. Orange clothes played more aggresively.
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(A01) Faceless Crowd
analysed newspaper cuttings of 60 lynchings in US between 1899-1946. Found more people there were in the mob, savagery was greater when killing.
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(A01) Reduced self-awareness - Prentice-Dunn et al 1982
offer alternative explanation. It's reduced self awareness not simply anonymity.
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(A01) If an individual is self-focused, what does this mean?
It means that they tend to focus on, and act according to, their internalised attitudes and moral standards, thus reducing liklihood of antisocial behaviour.
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(A01) What happens if the person submerges themselves in a group?
THey may lose this self-focus, becoming less privately self-aware, and therefore less able to regulate their own behaviour.
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(A02) Zimbardo 1969 (Method)
four female undergraduates were required to deliver electric shocks to another student in order to 'aid learning'. 50% wore bulky labcoats and hoods, hiding faces. They sat in separate cubicles and weren't named.
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(A02) Zimbardo 1969 (Method ii)
The other half wore normal clothes, were given large name tags, were introduced to one another by name and could see each other when sat at shock machines. All were told they could see the person being shocked.
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(A02) Zimbardo 1969 (Findings)
Those in the deindividuation condition shocked the 'learner' for twice as liong as did the identifiable pp's.
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(A02) Johnson & Downing 1979
Used same conditions as Zimbardo 1969, but were anonymous by overalls and masks (KKK) or nurses uniform. KKK shocked more than control, nurses shocked less. People respond to normative cues associated with social context.
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(A02) Lack of support - Postmes & Spears 1998
Meta-analysis 60 deindividuation studies. Conclude that there's insufficient support for major claims of this theory. Disinhibition and antisocial behaviour are not more common in large groups and anonymous settings.No evidence of low self-awareness
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(A02) Prosocial behaviour - Spivey & Prentice-Dunn 1990
found that deindividuation could lead to either prosocial/antisocial behaviour depending on situational factors. When prosocial environmental cues were present, DID pp's performed more altruistic acts and fewer antisocial acts.
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(A02) Online - Francis et al 2006
Adolescents reported feeling significantly more comfortable seeking help with mental health problems under DID circumstances of internet chatrooms compared to the individuated circumstances of a personal appointment with ahealth professional
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(A02) Gender Bias - Cannavale et al 1970
found that male and female groups responded differently under DID conditions reflecting a gender bias in the theory AN increase in aggression was only obtained in all-male groups.
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(A02) Gender Bias - Diener et al 1973
found greater disinhibition of aggression in males. Evidence indicates males may be more prone to disinhibition of aggressive behaviour when Deindividuated than females.
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(A02) Mann 1981
used the concept of DID to explain baiting crowd. Analysed 21 suicide leaps reported in US newspapers in 1960's/1970's. He found that 10/21 cases where the crowd urged potential suicide.
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(A02) Mann 1981 (findings)
they occured at night when the crowd was large and some distance from the person being taunted, (particularly when 'jumper' was high above them).
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(A02) Watson 1973
data on warriors in 23 societies changed their appearance prior to going to war. and extent to which they kill, torture and mutilate. Those who changed their appearance were more destructive.
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Card 2

Front

Anonymity, Suggestibility and Contagion

Back

(A01) Name three factors that mean the "collective mind" takes possesion of the individuals mind

Card 3

Front

individual loses self-control and becomes capable of acting in a way that goes against personal or social norms.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A psychological state characterised by lowered self-evaluation and decreased concerns about evaluation by others. Leading to an increase in behaviour that would normally be inhibited by personal or social norms.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

removal of the normal inhibitions concerning aggression

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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