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  • Deindividuation
    • AO1
      • A person is more aggressive when they are anonymous
      • A psychological state characterised by low self evaluation and little concern about evaluation by others
      • In large crowds, less likely to be recognised, so consequences less likely
    • AO2
      • Zimbardo (1969)
        • One group of ppts deindividuated and the other wasn't
        • Group with less identity gave shocks twice as long to other student to 'aid learning' than individuated group
      • Local group norms important
        • Johnson + Downing (1979) - deindividuated group dressed as nurses gave smaller shocks than individuated
      • Lack of evidence and support
        • Postmes + Spears (1998), meta-analysis 60 studies found insufficient support for major claims for theory
      • Might increase prosocial behaviour?
        • Spivey + Prentice Dunn (1990) found that deindividuated crowds acted prosocial or antisocial depending on situational cues
        • Francis et al (2006) adolescents felt more comfortable looking for mental health help online in chatrooms where they are deindividuated


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