Cultural bias in psychology

What is the definition of Cultural bias?
a one sided, distorted view of human behaviour, caused by either the researcher's expectations and data collect methods
1 of 59
What is another way of bias?
selection of pps from only one subtype of society, or nationality
2 of 59
What examples are included?
alpha bias, beta bias
3 of 59
What is alpha bias?
where differences between cultures are exagerated
4 of 59
What is beta bias?
where differences are ignored to create universal, ethnocentric explanations of behaviour
5 of 59
What is widely accepted?
cultural bias does occur in psychology
6 of 59
What extent isnt known?
which this has an effect on understanding of human behaviour is unkown
7 of 59
What is the question then?
What causes cultural bias and can the problems associated with it be overcome
8 of 59
What can psychology aim to be?
objective, scientific study of behaviour that can be applied universally
9 of 59
but if it is no then what?
difficult to see how out understanding of behaviour can be applied to all people and hence there are implications for treatments
10 of 59
What can cultural bias be caused by?
the researcher as it is estimated that 90% of all psychological research is completed by western, male psychologists.
11 of 59
What approach is this?
ETIC approach
12 of 59
What is this?
looking at behaviour from an external/universal perspective
13 of 59
What is this behaviour?
highly objective and scientific
14 of 59
However what doesnt it account for?
cultural differences
15 of 59
For example?
Bennet Levy and Marteau took an etic approach to the study of innate fears and biological preparedness
16 of 59
What did they use?
a questionnaire based on 29 harmless animals where the hypothesis was imposed
17 of 59
What did he use?
113 british pps and then applied the findings to the global populations
18 of 59
What does this type of cultural bias mean?
the explanations for behaviour are therefore limited and reductionist
19 of 59
However, what is this approach to research seen as?
'good science' which is a goal that psychology is trying to achieve
20 of 59
Alternatively, what have some psychologists tried to eliminate?
cultural bias from their studies
21 of 59
How?
doing cross-cultural research
22 of 59
What is one example?
Buss' study
23 of 59
What did bus do?
From a sample of 10.047 pps (33 countries/37 cultures) he found that sex differences in mate preferences across 3 variables (age, looks, and finances were strongly confirmed across all cultures
24 of 59
If CCR has found that human behaviour is universal what wouldnt be a problem?
culture bias in research isn't a problem as we could still apply findings to all people reliably by using an etic approach
25 of 59
However, How could Buss be criticised?
not evenly distributed across all cultures suggesting that even CCR is biased.
26 of 59
What are problems with reliability?
due to issues with translation could have occured
27 of 59
What else can cultural bias be caused by?
selection and demographic of the participants
28 of 59
Many studies if not the most are completed on what?
white, male, middle class students
29 of 59
What does it mwan if only on type of pps is used?
how can we then generalise these findings to the entire population
30 of 59
Who was reasearch carried out by?
Ash
31 of 59
What did he research?
social pressure from a majority initia;;y only used American pps finding 36.8% conformity in crticial trials
32 of 59
Who carried out work that challenged this? and what did they find?
Perrin and Spencer, studies in England found conformity on just 1/396 trials
33 of 59
What does this suggest?
perhaps studies carried out a beta biased way should not be taken at face value
34 of 59
However, how can Perrin's study be criticised?
pps were science and engineering students so was not comparable to Asch
35 of 59
What is one way to overcome cultural bias?
use indigenous psychological research
36 of 59
Where the researcher does what?
studies their own culture
37 of 59
To provide?
an alternative view of behaviour that is not generalised to an entire populations
38 of 59
Why is this a problem?
due to a lack of potential applications
39 of 59
What studies are used as an example?
Zimbardo's Stanfard Prison experiment could be incredibly useful in reforming the US prison service and were arguably successful because Zimbardo was immersed in the culture he was studying
40 of 59
The problem arises when we try to apply the findings to what?
confined spaces in other cultures
41 of 59
However what could we argue?
that his immersion in the study made findins less scientific and objective, so perhaps his findings are unreliable
42 of 59
A final issue of cultural bias is within what?
the diagnostics system
43 of 59
What are early issues of the ICD and DSM?
Is that they were widely criticised for taking a western approach to diagnosing disorders
44 of 59
This is not what?
necessarily dependent on the psychologist/psychiatrist using it or the patient being diagnosed
45 of 59
it is the fact that they were created to make symptoms universal what does this mean?
diagnosis is prone to culture bias when it is used on pateints from a non western origin
46 of 59
For example?
UK Afro- Caribbean immigrants are at least 7 times more likely o be diagnosed as scizophrenic than white natives
47 of 59
However this problem could be due to what?
racism induced stress which triggers the onset of psychological rather than cultural bias within the DS< disorders in minority groups,
48 of 59
To overcome these biases in current editions, what is in the DSM-IV?
there is an inclusion of culture bound syndromes
49 of 59
For example, what disease has been added?
Koro, a disorder that appears in Asia, involving fear of the penis retracting into the body, has been added to account for this specific cultural difference.
50 of 59
Therefore, using what?
an EMIC approach appears to reduce or at least recognize, issues of cultural bias within the diagnostic system
51 of 59
In addition to the problems associated with culture bias it is important to remember what?
other forms of bias will also affect research for example gender, attribution
52 of 59
Without resolving all types of bias, attempting to overcome what?
cultural relativity will be futile, as essentially the research will still not be generalizable to the wider population
53 of 59
What is one possible way to minimise cultural bias?
cross cultural teams of psychologists observing the same things with agreed procedures but within their own different cultures to create applications that are culturally specific
54 of 59
However, outcomes of other controversies also have what?
implications for the impact of culture bias on findings
55 of 59
What is an example?,
when considering whether freewill is an illusion
56 of 59
If freewill exists then all psychological research could be what?
questioned even if it were carried out in an emic way
57 of 59
If people are 'unique' then what will be futile?
indigenous research
58 of 59
Therefore perhaps recognition of culture bias is what?
enough to maintain the potential applications that creating a universal theory brings
59 of 59

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is another way of bias?

Back

selection of pps from only one subtype of society, or nationality

Card 3

Front

What examples are included?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is alpha bias?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is beta bias?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Cultural Bias resources »