Contemporary Study - Steyvers and Hemmer 2012

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Aim
To conduct a study on reconstructive memory and look at natural recall
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Procedure -Phase 1
To see what the person expects to be in a scene. There were 5 images per scene and there were 2 conditions. To see prior knowledge of participants
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Procedure - Phase 2
There were 10 scenes, to see which scene has highest score using free recall. More time to see the image means that more time is available for info to be encoded into memory
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Results - Phase 1
Visual town scene had the car in centre and with importance was named by 20 out of 22 pps. Verbal cue had 20/22 naming a computer in office. Visual and verbal cue had same top 3: building, cars, people
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Results - Phase 2
Low prior probability had 18% error rate. High prior probability had 9% error rate. When seeing for 2s, 7.75 average objects recalled, but 10s=10.05 items. Everyday objects recall had error rate of 19%
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Conclusion
Prior knowledge causes high error rates in artificial and 'trick' studies. Error rates are not useful and participants use semantic memory for prior knowledge
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Strengths?
Use real life scenes, thus ecologically valid; high controls; scientific method; both types of memory tested for; prior studies used
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Weaknesses?
Was still in a laboratory; was limited stimuli; lack of generalisation
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Card 2

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Procedure -Phase 1

Back

To see what the person expects to be in a scene. There were 5 images per scene and there were 2 conditions. To see prior knowledge of participants

Card 3

Front

Procedure - Phase 2

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Results - Phase 1

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Results - Phase 2

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