Cognitive psyc

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  • Created on: 05-12-16 09:58
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  • Cognitive Psychology
    • Multi store model
      • Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968
      • Sensory Memory
        • Short term memory
          • Long term memory
            • Coding:Involves different brain areas which suggests they encode differently Capacity: potentially unlimited duration: unlimited
          • Coding: mainly acoustic Capacity: 7 +/- 2 Duration: 18-20 seconds (Peterson)
        • Coding: modality specific Capacity:Large Duration: depends on the modality and age
      • information processing model, information flows through a series of storage systems
      • Strength: considerable amount of research evidence (Baddely, Miller, Peterson)
        • Weakness:   tests are artificial and studies of brain damage suggest memory is very complex
    • Working Memory Model
      • Baddeley and Hitch 1974
      • Central Executive
        • responsible for giving attention to information from the other two stores and making decisions about which information is the most important. rehearsal occurs
      • Phonological loop
        • known as the 'inner-voice' and holds information in a speech based form; it has a limited capacity
      • Visuo-Spatial sketchpad
        • known as the 'inner-eye' and is specialised for spatial and visual encoding
      • Episodic Buffer
        • added in 2000 as a third slave system to explain how its possible to temporarily store information combined together from the CE, Pl, VSS
      • strength: much more detailed information about the processes invoved in short term memory, making it superior to the MSM
        • Weakness: very little is known about the decision making activities of the central executive
    • Long term memory
      • Tulving 1972
      • Episodic
        • autobiographical record of experiences. the strength of the memory is influenced by emotion
      • Semantic
        • contains all knowledge, facts and meanings. semantic and episodic overlap in LTM. theyre easier to recall due to the amount of links associated with brain areas.
      • Procedural
        • implicit memory of knowing how to do something
      • Strength: neuro-physiological evidence of brain damage to those areas where episodic memories are effected has shown two memory systems present
        • Weakness: because both LTM stores work togther it is diffuclt to conduct research because they cannot be studied in absolute isolation.
    • Reconstructive Memory
      • Bartlett 1932
        • Memory isnt a complete recording of what happens in life. we use our past experiences when laying down memories. there are schemas that we have already learned or assumed to help us know what to do in particular situations
          • This means that memory is a reconstructed process of shaping, interpreting and making sense of what we expect to see
        • War of the Ghosts
        • Strength: the theory can be tested experimentally because the IV can be operationalised and measured to establish cause and effect
          • Weakness: Bartlett's story did not make sense so the participants could have altered it because of demand chacteristics
            • War of the Ghosts
    • Classic Study:
      • Baddeley 1966- encoding in STM and LTM
        • A: to assess whether encoding in STM and LTM was acoustic or semantic.
        • P: 75 ppts presented with a one of four lists and repeated it four times (acoustically similar etc)
        • F: STM acoustically similar words did the worst LTM semantically similar words did the worst
        • C: STM encodes mainly semantically while the LTM encodes mainly accoustically
    • Contemporary study
      • A: to investigate the development of the phonological loop in children aged 5-17
      • Sebastian and Hernandez-Gil 2012
      • P: 570 ppts random sequence of digits read aloud by experimenters at 1 digit per second. gradually increased by length
      • F: Digit span increases in age from 3.76 at 5 to 5.91 at 17
      • C: Digit span increases with age. dementia has an impact  on digit span
    • Key Question
      • How can psychologists understanding of memory help patients with dementia?
      • Dementia affects 850,00 people in the UK. Tends to affect the elderly but here are 40,00 people under 65 with dementia. Common symptoms: loss of memory, depression and exhaustion. No cure.
      • Application: Tulving's episodic memory. Reconstructive memory.


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