1951-1964

Who did Macmillan appoint as his Chancellor of Exchequor?
Selwyn Lloyd
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What did Selwyn Lloyd introduce?
Pay Pause
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When did Selwyn Lloyd introduce the pay pause?
1961
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Why did Selwyn Lloyd introduce the pay pause?
to combat rising wages and higher consumer spending
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What was the reaction to the paypause in 1961?
This caused outrage
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What did Macmillan do to combat the issue of the pay pause?
Introduced a new Chancellor of Exchequor
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What did the by-elections in 1961-62 see alot of conservatives do?
turn to liberals
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What true tory seat did liberals win?
Kent
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What did the defeat in the by elections cause Macmillan to do?
Sacked a third of his cabinet
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What was the night of long knives?
Macmillan sacked a third of his cabinet
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What was the publics reaction to the night of long knives?
didnt like the ruthlessness of this
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What did Macmillan restore in the Conservative Party?
Party unity was restored
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What was Macmillan named from the start of his run?
'SuperMac'
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Why was Macmillan called 'SuperMac?'
increased the majority of seats to 100
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Who did Macmillan have in the palm of his hands?
The media
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What kind of conservative was Macmillan?
He was a 'One Nation Tory'
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Did Macmillan believe in consensus?
Yes
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What did Butler say growing economic prosperity was down to?
end of the Korean War
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Why were high wages only good for workers?
It made Britain less economically competitive because it meant other countries were able to produce cheaper goods
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Which countries were economically better than Britain?
France, Germany and Japan
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What problems did decolonisation cause to the economy?
Decolonisation meant less exploition of raw materials
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What did not being in the EEC mean for Britain?
meant that Britains trading partners were not as wealthy so couldnt buy as many British goods. This was goverments fault as they didnt nationalise British goods
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When was the Vassal affair?
1963
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What was the Vassal affair?
This was when a civil servent, John Vassal, was caught spying for the Soviet Union
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What was the effect of the Vassal affair on Britiain?
This made goverment look like they werent in control of their department
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Who did Britian preform badly compared to?
France and Germany
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What was lowest for Britain in Western Europe?
GPD (how much money Britain was making)
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Why did Macmillan carry on dismantling the empire?
There was a consensus that the age of imperalism was dead. After fighting in WW2 it was difficult for Britain to justify her empire
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Was Macmillans decolonisation successful?
In Africa with the exception of some countries like Kenya, this was a bloodless and remarkably smooth process
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How many homes did the conservatives built in total?
In total they built 1.2 million homes
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What meant that people could buy these homes?
the availability of credit meant that people could borrow money to buy their homes
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What did Macmillan and the conservatives believe in about housing?
they believed in 'property owning democracy' encouraging people to buy their homes
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What did the availability of credit (under Macmillan) mean?
People could borrow money and pay it back over a series of months
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Why did the availability of credit create prosperity?
this meant that people could buy things like cars and TVs that they previously could not have afforded
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how much had the ownership of cars increased from 1950-1965?
quadtrupled from 1.5 million to 5.5 million
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When did Macmillan apply to join the EEC?
1963
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When was the EEC set up?
1957
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Why did Churchill refuse to join the EEC?
Churchill thought that Britains economy had more important commitments elsewhere with the USA and the commonwealth
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Who was Britains application to join the EEC vetoed by?
France
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How much of the Suez Canal did Britain own?
44%
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When was the Suez invasion?
1956
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What did Britain do when they found out about the plans for the nationalisation of the Suez Canal?
Eden entered secret agreement with France to invade Egypt- plan backfired
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What was Americas reaction to the Suez Crisis?
America were outraged as they were not consulted
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Why did Britain pull out of the Suez invasion?
America refused to lend Britain the money they desperatly needed if they didnt back out
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What was the effect of the Suez on goverment?
Britain looked week because they pulled out on Americas wishes. Eden resigned
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When was the Guillebaud commitee set up?
1953
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What was the Guillebaud commitee?
A committee to report on finances of the NHS
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What did the Guillebaud committee prove?
Showed the NHS was cost effective
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What did Churchill take from the Guillebaud comittee?
Churcill was confident to accept the structure of the Welfare State
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How much did conservatives expenditure on social services increase?
39.2% to 43%
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Who came up with the name of the 'Night of the long knives'?
The press
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What was the effect of the Night of long knives on goverment?
Macmillan intended to strengthen goverment however it weakend it. Macmillan was made to seem clumsy and out of touch
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What did Conservatives believe about employment?
Agreed with labour that it was important
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How many were unemployed in 1951?
367,000
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How many were unemployed by 1963?
876,000
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What was the comparison between wages and prices under Macmillan?
Wages rose ahead of Prices
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How much did the adverage weekly wage rise under the conservatives?
the adverage male wage rose from £8 in 1951 to £18 in 1964
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What is the relationship between inflation and the wage during this period?
While inflation grew during this period it never overtook the increase in real wage
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What did Macmillan do to defence spending?
Cut defence spending
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what meant that Britain could reduce its expenditure on defence?
Detoriation of the atomic bomb in 1952
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What did Britain cut their defence spending on?
Army and the navy
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What percentage of GPD was defence spending in mid 50s?
10%
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What percentage of GPD was defence spending in 1964?
6%
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What amount of balance of payments did the conservatives face when they came into power?
£700 mllion
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What cuts did the conservatives make to lower the balance of payments?
cuts on imports especially but also made cuts on credit and travel
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What surplus had the conservatives made by 1952?
£295 million
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What was bank rate raised to in 1952?
4% from 2%
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What were British companies at the forefront of?
Oil companies, tobacco, shipping and financial markets
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What caused a demand for British exports?
Marshall Aid from the USA and cost of British goods had dropped.
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What was the argument against the welfare state?
the goverment couldnt afford to prodce a competitive economy and pay for welfare state
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Why can Butler be argued to be the key figure in Churchills goverment?
By 1955, Britain had achieved near full employment, low inflation and no balance of payments problems
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Name 4 of the conservatives aims.
Maintain welfare state, reduce taxation and public expenditure, develop nuclear weapons programme, raise productivitiy and exports
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What relationship did conservatives want to have with Trade Unions?
They were strongly committed to maintaining good relations with Trade Unions that Labour had already started
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What event showed Churchills previous bad relations with the Trade Unions?
General Strike of 1926
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What did Churchill make clear to Trade Unions he would not appeal?
Trade Unions Act of 1946
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Who efforts wth Trade Unions did Churchill strongly support?
Sir Walter Mancton
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Why did Churchill try to stress the non-partisan nature of his goverment?
To try and capture more peoples votes as he didnt want to just capture some votes
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Why did Churchill want to stress the non-partisan nature of his goverment? (labour)
Attlee had run things on tightly controlled cabinets and this wasnt particuarly liked by anyone
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When did Butler publish the Industrial charter?
1947
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What was the Industrial charter?
A statement of principles that indicated the goverment were committed to a welfare state, mixed economy and full employment.
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Why did Butler publish the Industrial charter?
Did this because of WW2 coalition
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When did the Satire Industry boom?
early 1960s
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Who did the Satire companies mock?
the political establishment and Harold Macmillan was often the brunt of these jokes
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When was the CND set up?
1958
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Who set up the CND?
the bevanites
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What did the CND fight for?
condemn nuclear weapons and unilaterism
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What did some people march for?
multilateralism
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Why did people argue for multilateralism?
Should own nuclear weapons so we dont become dependent on the USA
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What caused Unilateralism to not be a vote winner?
The cold war
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Why was nuclear weapons a problem for labour?
cause divide in the party
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Who were the 3 reforming politicans in Churchills cabinet?
Anthony Eden, Rab Butler, Harold Macmillan
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What was Eden in Churchills cabinet?
Foreign Secretary
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What was Butler in Churchills cabinet?
Chancellor of the Exchequer
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What was Macmillan in Churchills cabinet?
Minister of housing
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What was a continuity of women in politics?
women still struggled to gain a seat/ voice in politics
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How many women MPs were there in 1945?
24
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How many women Mps were there in 1968?
27
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Why did married men get priority over married women as being Mps?
they preffered a married man as they would automatically gain the wifes support. Whereas, married women was less likely to have a supportive husband
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What was the womens section called within labour party?
National Labour womens advisory committee
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Who did women have to compete with to get a seat in parliment?
Union sponsered candidates who help the advantage of guarenteed funds
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What caused feminist campaigns to change?
Due to new, strong, prevailing public portrails of feminity
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What was the new direction of feminist campaigns?
improve social conditions and make better the more difficult features of family life
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What nuclear weapons programme did women begin to get involved in?
the National Council for the abolination of nuclear weapons
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When was the national council for the abolination of nuclear weapons set up?
1957
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Why were women said to be joining the campaigns against nuclear weapons?
implication of nuclear weapons on families
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What was there a continuation on for feminist campaigns?
there was little to no attempt of any new approaches to the issues concerning women
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Which womens group campaigned against labours food rationing?
British housewives league
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What did the SPG and WFI campaign for?
the same agenda set in 1920s- equal pay and end discrimination in work forces
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What was the lack of change in womens campaigns said to be down to?
Unable to recruit new members
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What was Butskellism?
Rab Butler and Gaitskell came up with a consensus of simular ideas
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Who came up with the term 'Bustskellism'?
The economist
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Who did fashion create a contrast between?
Youth and elders
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Where became the fashion capital?
London
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Who caused a fashion revolution?
Mary Quant
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Why did the new fashion go against social norms?
Women used to wear very conservative clothing
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Why was music able to have a big effect on teens?
Teens were beginning to be able to buy records
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Which were 2 of the biggest bands in the music industry?
The Beatles and the Rolling Stones
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What was significant about the Beatles and the Rolling Stones?
Both from a working classs background
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Why was it signifcant the Beatles and the Rolling Stones were from working class backgrounds?
made less divide between middle and working class
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What did transistor radios mean?
teens didnt have to listen to the same music as their elders- helped spread culture
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What divide in teens did music cause?
The mods and the rockers
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Who were the mods?
Listened to sophisticated pop music
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Where and when was the national scale riot between the mods and the rockers?
Brighton in 1964
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What did the riot between the mods and the rockers show?
showed the social change- youth used to respect their elders and would be at home with their elders
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How much of the population did the teenager make up?
10%
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Why did the teenager make up so much of the population?
post war baby boom
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Why was the large population of the teen significant?
more visible in society
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Why were teenagers noticable in society?
made their own culture
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Why were teens able to make their own culture?
teens had more money to buy clothes and records
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Why did teens have more money?
More jobs available because increase in employment in factories and British emigration
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Why did teens now have time to get a job?
girls didnt need to help mothers at home due to new labour sabing devices and boys didnt need to join the national service
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What percentage of people were aware of class division?
90%
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Who was there a blurring of class boundaries between?
middle and working class
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Which class remained untouched?
The upper class
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How did the upper class try to maintain the class system?
Private school, 'taste' and how to spend leisure time
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What showed that the goverment wanted to look after all classes?
The maintaining of the welfare state and nationalisation
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What was the consumer revolution?
more luxury goods- could buy cars and latest fashionable clothes
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What did car ownership raise from?
3 million to 7 million
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How many households had a tv in 1961?
80%
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What gave people more time to have a holiday in the mid 50s?
Working hours were reduced and people were able to have 2 week payed holiday
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In terms of credit why was a consumer revolution able to happen?
people felt confident in valuing our credit because there was a lot of jobs and wages were rising so people felt confident in paying it back
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In terms of wage increase why was there a consumer revolution?
men had a wage increase which was due to stop go and tax cuts which then led to massive savings
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Compared to which countries were Britiain in economic decline?
Germany, Japan and France
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Why were Germany, France and Japan economically competitive?
recovery from ww2- huge investment in rebuilding and modernisation
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What was an example of France being economically advanced?
electric trains
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What were Britain spending alot of money on?
Nuclear weapons
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What caused Britain to be spending alot of money on nuclear weapons?
Prime ministers were preocupied with world position. Also the cold war
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What industry did many women carry on working in after WW2?
Light industries such as electronics-provided new opportunities
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Why did women need to carry on working after the war?
Needed to provide for their families as many were widowed
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How many women married women worked in the 1960s?
36%
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What were the belief about women working during this time?
people still believed in traditional values even though women were starting to take part in full time work
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What transiton did the 60s see for feminism?
more relaxed image for feminism
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what caused this more relaxed view of feminity?
new exciting styles of fashion and music, e.g. the mini skirt and public recognition of sex due to scandals
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Who released the 'New Look' design?
Christian Dior
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When was the 'New Look' design introduced?
1947
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Why was the 'New Look' design significant?
This rebelled against dreary utility wartime clothes and women began to look more feminine in the way they dressed
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What did literature begin to say about the approach to mothercare?
Argued for a more child centure approach to upbringing
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Who published a book about the child centred approach to upbringing?
John Bowlby
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What did the new books about child care fail to address?
the sense of isolation that some women fwlt
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Who wrote a book about the issues in mothercare for women?
Margarot Drabble
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Why was it difficult for women to work and have babys?
There was a lack of nursuries or cover arrangements,employees were not ready to adjust work schedules to accomidate family needs
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What impact did the Suez invasion have on the economy?
the pound came under huge pressure on the international exchanges and Bank of England lost £84 million during October
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When was the Financial crisis?
1957
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What was the Financial crisis of 1957?
Inflation was rising due to wages running ahead of productivity- run on the pound
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What was there a danger of because of the financial crisis?
danger that the pound would have to be devalued against the US dollar
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Who was Britain trading with?
Empire and Commonwealth
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Why was Britain lagging behind her European competitors?
Application to Britain joining the EEC was denied so didnt have good trading partners
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How much of a payrise did Macmillan give railway workers?
5%
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Why was the pay rise for railway workers a problem?
many other occupations did not share the payrise- payrise happened at an uneven rate
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What was introduced to combat inflation and why was it a problem?
Pay Pause- period of decline for workers
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Why was Britain still seen as a leading power in the world?
They had the support from the US and they were part of the Grand Alliance that won the war
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Why did America give us money?
Keynes convinced them to
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What did nationalisation mean for goverment?
goverment had the right to direct the key aspects of the economy in order to create social justice and efficiency
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What companies did goverment nationalise?
Bank of England, Coal, Road transport etc.
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Why was nationalisation a positive?
Helped working class and increase in outputs is going to exports
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How much did mens weekly wage increase?
£8 in 1951- £18 in 1964
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Why was there an increase in the mens weekly wage?
stop go cycle and cutting of taxes
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What did growth in mens weekly wage lead to?
massive savings and so boom in white goods
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Why can Macmillan be described as an enlightened liberator?
showed swift realisation by adressing the countries needs for independence before they decended into violence.
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Why can Macmillan not be described as an elightened liberator?
there was unrest among civilians- frustrated with shortages and political protests- A rise in strikes and political protests. also Canada wanted South Africa out of commonwealth and Macmillan said no- economic interests infront of racial issues
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What shoes that independence was seizes by countries?
seized by nationalist movements
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What event showed Britains problem with Britains colonial policies?
Mau Mau rebellion in Kenya
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What event made Britain recognisider pace of decolonalisation?
Suez crisis
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What were Britains reasons for decolonisation?
ww2 discredited empire; pressure off of nationalists in empire; value of keeping colonies was increasing after Suez; cost lots to run empire; wanted to leave quietly because of French and Belgians
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What was there an increase in due to the Korean War?
increase in Anglo-American relations
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Why did the Uk get involved in the Korean War?
Britain agreed to help as wanted US support and wanted to show countries Britain was able to play major role in world affairs despite economic constraints
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What did the CND campaign for?
Nuclear Disarment
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Were the CND influential?
most powerful pressure group in Britain
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Who was the CND backed by?
backed by interlectuals and middle class
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When did the CND do their biggest march?
1959
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Where was the CND march?
AldermastonW
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Who were Britain reliant on for nuclear weapons?
The US
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What was the cooperation with the US like with nuclear weapons?
they worked closely with the US however it was very on and off
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What event brought together the American and Uk relationship?
Korean conflict
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What act did Churchill and the US president come up with about atomic bombs?
American Atomic Energy Act
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What was the American Atomic Energy Act?
Sharing of information regarding atomic weapons
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When did the American Atomic Energy Act end?
ended with Suez
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What did Britain do that showed reliance on US war equipment?
Britains cancellation of bluestreak
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In terms of the establishment, what was society shaping to be like?
Britain appeared to be becoming a more individualist and less conformist society which was less willing to follow lead set by British establishment
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Who was the Establishment?
Made up by privaledged people who had influence where connections were important
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Who is included in the Establishment?
businessmen, the media, and politicians
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What did the Profumo affair expose?
sexual exploits within the goverment
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What was significant about the Profumo affair?
tactics previously used by goverment to prevent the publication of sensitive information no longer existed
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In the Profumo affair who do we see that Macmillan no longer has the support of?
The media- people in the establishment started to turn on each other
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What was the consequence from the profumo affair?
goverment no longer had respect from society
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Where did Britain want to join after loss of empire?
the eec
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What did Britain feel the need to develop due to loss of empire?
develop nuclear weapons to maintain world position
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What was passed to control immigration?
Commonwealth immigration Act 1962
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What conflict did the commonwealth immigration act bring?
the labour party strongly opposed the act
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What direction was Britain heading with immigration acceptance?
Goverment and local communities muddled along towards a multicultural society however without a clear direction which shows the changing attitudes about race relations
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Why was there conflict between the working class and immigrants?
working class would have to compete with the immigrants. Immigrants would work for lower wage so people lost out on jobs
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What event brought racial tensions to national attention
Nottinghill riots
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What effect did Nottinghill riots have?
It altered many peoples views on immigration- people believed immigrant were bringing over violence
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What event led to Nottinghill riots?
Strong Carribean community had grown in Nottinghill, London
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What were the Nottinghill riots?
Youths chased Caribbeans down the streets; milk bottes and petrol bottles were thrown
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When was the British Nationality Act?
1948
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What was the British Nationality Act?
the right to move to Britain if commonwealth citizen
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What jobs did alot of immigrants come to fill?
NHS recruitment- need for nurses
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What event was there enthusiasm shown for the commonwealth?
Queen Elizabeths coronation
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Before the Nottinghill riot, what was society like between immigrants and the public?
noticable tolarance and getting along
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What did authorities think about immigrants?
authorities regarded them as economically desireable due to filling low wage jos
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What meant that there were alot of jobs for immigrants to fill?
1.2 Million British citizens leaving the country
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When was there a survey on thoughts on immigration?
1965
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How many people said they would refuse to work with a black person in survey in 1965?
1 in 5
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How many people said they would refuse to live next door to a black person in 1965?
1 in 2
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How many people said that they refused mixed marriages?
9/10
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What did a sign say regarding immigration in Birmingham?
'No Irish, no blacks, no dogs'
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What were conservatives budgets often used for?
short term measures to buy votes in general elections
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Name an example from 1959 of a conservative budget to buy votes?
introduced a range of tax cuts
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What did critics say about conservative budgets?
in the long term it damaged the economy because it created debt
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How much was the balance of payments in 1964?
£800 million
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What did decolonisation cause for Britain in terms of resource?
had to pay for resources they once openly exploited
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What consequence did decolonisation have on colonies?
lost out on easier access to healthcare, cheaper goods, better education
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How did WW2 help nationalists argument for decolonisation?
it exposed allied propaganda which promoted freedom so put pressure on Britain
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When was Nigeria given full indepence?
1960s
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When did Nigerias fight for independence begin?
1919
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When did Nigerias fight for independence gain more support?
1930s economic depression
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Why did Nigeria want indepence?
due to increased authority given to ruling elite and unfair taxation
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What was Britains nuclear strategy?
strategy was to stop being reliant on the US for information concerning atomic bomb
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Who was Britains nuclear strategy popular with?
popular with the public as it meant troops abroad could be brought home and goverment could phase out National Service by 1960
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what was the significance of the wind of change speech?
first sign goverment accepted day of empire was over and it dramatically speeded up process of African indepence, first time a senior international figure had given voice to growing protest against strict racial segregation in South Africa
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Why did Macmillan give the Wind of Change speech?
gave speech because of terrible conditions they were currently suffering
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Card 2

Front

What did Selwyn Lloyd introduce?

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Pay Pause

Card 3

Front

When did Selwyn Lloyd introduce the pay pause?

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Card 4

Front

Why did Selwyn Lloyd introduce the pay pause?

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Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the reaction to the paypause in 1961?

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