Cold War: 1 - Origins: US, British and USSR Relations in 1945

  • Created by: Madisonxo
  • Created on: 21-12-18 23:03
Key features of UK + USA ideology
Capitalist, based on the fundamental right to liberty. Equal opportunities but no necessarily equal outcomes. Free market economy. Free elections.
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Key features of USSR ideology
Karl Marx - Capitalism = exploitation. Leninism = authoritarian. Stalin = cult of personality, communism.
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When was the Yalta conference?
4th-11th February 1945
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Who was at the Yalta conference?
USSR: Stalin. US: Roosevelt. UK: Churchill. = Grand Alliance
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Agreements at Yalta?
Germany + Berlin divided into 4 (UK, USSR, US, France). United Nations formally ratified. USSR = gains land from Poland. Declaration on Liberated Europe (free elections).
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Stalin: view on Germany
Wanted it to be unified but Germany had to be kept economically weak until it became a communist state.
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Roosevelt: view on world ideologies
A post - war world should reflect the American concept of democracy (non-communist)
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Churchill: View on USSR
Thought they were expansionist and Churchill wanted to secure Britain's imperialist interests
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The Percentages Agreement?
1944 - Established the predominance Britain and USSR would have in EE countries e.g. Romania - 90% USSR. Greece - 90% UK. Hungary - 50% each.
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Lublin Government?
USSR supported pro-communist government which existed in Poland while the Polish government existed in exile in London during WW2
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When was the Potsdam conference?
17th July - 1st August 1945
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Who attended Potsdam?
US: Truman (Roosevelt's vice). UK: Churchill -> Attlee. USSR: Stalin.
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What caused tension between Stalin and Truman at Potsdam?
The day before Potsdam, the USA successfully tested their first atomic bomb without telling Stalin. Truman hoped it would ensure Stalin stayed loyal to his agreement at Yalta - Stalin saw this as atomic diplomacy.
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Agreements at Potsdam?
Germany = disarmed + demilitarised, de-nazification, freedom of speech + free press were to be reintroduced, Germany was to become a single-market economy. USSR = 25% reparations from western zones.
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What did Truman want the post-war world to be based on?
Based on world economic reconstruction through the creation of the IMF and the World Bank. This would decrease probability of a great depression and ensure US geostrategic interests (limiting USSR expansion)
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How did Truman view his relationship with Stalin, esp. after Potsdam?
Confrontation rather than cooperation. Hoped that US nuclear technology would be key to ensuring Stalin keeps to his promises. Believed force was necessary. Feared communist growth in EE.
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How did Attlee view Stalin after Potsdam? + what did he think the post-war world should be like?
Thought Stalin was expansionist + was cautious about crippling Germany (geostrategic interest) + thought the USA should act as defender of the Western zones against Soviet threat.
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How did Stalin view the west after Potsdam? + how did it implicate his actions?
Stalin thought the West were rivals for dominance in Europe which reinforced his obsession with Soviet security (Red Army in EE) confrontation not cooperation.
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Key features of USSR ideology


Karl Marx - Capitalism = exploitation. Leninism = authoritarian. Stalin = cult of personality, communism.

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When was the Yalta conference?


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Who was at the Yalta conference?


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Agreements at Yalta?


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