Chapter 1 Cold war in asia



Possessors of empires

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Territorial and/or economic and/or cultural domination of another countr

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When a country's policy is to acquire other countries/territories

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

US President 1933-45 who steered the US through the Great Depression and WW2

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From 1963, British Malaya and associated territories were independent and know as Malaysia

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Winston Churchill

British Prime Minister 1940-45 and 1951-55 who criticised the Soviet 'Iron Curtain' in Eastern Europe

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Joseph Stalin

Led the Soviet Union from 1926-53. His suspicious nature contributed greatly to the origins and development of the Cold War

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Harry S. Truman

US President 1945-53 whose policies saw increased US involvement in Asia and a war in Korea

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Mao Zedong

Leader of the CCP 1935-76 who was dictator of a Communist China who played a major role in the Cold War in Asia

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Jiang Jieshi

Leader of the Guomindang 1925-75 who was recognised by the international community as the leader of China from the late 1920s to 1949

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Believers in economic equality brought about by the revolutionary redistribution of wealth

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Countries that take responsibility for another country and steering them towards independence

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Set of political beliefs

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US ideology

Supported capitalist systems and multi-party states, and thought Communist expansion would cause weakened US trade

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Soviet Ideology

Supported state-controlled economies and one-party states, and supported the promotion of Communist revolutions throughout the world

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Deteriorating Soviet-American Relations

Caused by ideological differences, Soviet domination of Eastern Europe, US atomic bomb monopoly, clashes of interest, a war of words and Stalin's defensive and suspicious nature

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State Department

US government department with responsibility for foreign affairs

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Secretary of State

US office that holds the responsibility for foreign policy and was in charge of the State Department

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February 1946

George Kennan sends the Long Telegram from Moscow

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Makes laws and grants funding for the President's policies

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March 1947

Truman tells congress that the Soviet threat must be resisted in what became known as the Truman Doctrine

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Policy of using counterforce against Communist expansion

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5 centres of power

USA, USSR, Britain, Germany and Central Europe, and Japan

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Douglas Macarthur

Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) from 1945-51 who was dismissed by Truman

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Douglas Macarthur

Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) from 1945-51 who was dismissed by Truman

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Manuel Roxas

First Filipino President 1946-48 whose election owed much to General MacArthur

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Joint Chiefs of Staff

Heads of the US Army, Navy and Air Force

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In the WW2, Filipino resistance led by the People's Anti-Japanese Army

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Elpidio Quirino

Second Filipino President 1948-53 who supported the US in the Korean War

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Ramon Magasaysay

Third Filipino President 1953-57 who's government was relatively free of corruption

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Model States

US aimed to create democratic, capitalist, pro-US and anti-communist states in Japan and the Philippines

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Guomindang (GMD)

Chinese Nationalist Party dominated by Jiang from the 1920s which was defeated by the CCP in the Chinese Civil War

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Chinese Civil War

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Reasons for the fall of China

Japanese invasion, Communist appeal to peasantry, Jiang's loss of middle class support, differing military strategies and the leadership of Mao

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1945-46 (Malaya)

The British Military Administration established to facilitate the return of military rule after the defeat of the Japanese

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1946-48 (Malaya)

The Malayan Union which was opposed by most Malayans as it took power away from their traditional rulers

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February 1948

The Federation of Malaya which restored the power of traditional Malay rulers and increased period of residence required for citizenship for non-Malays

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June 1948

The Malayan Communist uprising

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The Emergency

British had strong powers of arrest and large numbers of police and soldiers at their disposal...Communists greatly outnumbered

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1955 (Malaya)

Defeat of the communists

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1960 (Malaya)

The Emergency officially declared at an end

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How communists were defeated (Malaya)

Government force and power, isolation of the MCP, opposition to MPC from moderate Chinese, Communist division, Korean war causing boom in Malaya, British announced independence was imminent and Malay support for Britain

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1957 (Malaya)

Federation of Malaya gains independence from Britain

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Red Scare

Period of anti-Communist hysteria

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Reasons for US involvement in Korea

Loss of China, Republican attacks, Huk rebellion, Communist activity in Malaya, Communist opposition in French Indochina and to protect Japan

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August 1945

US proposed a temporary division on the peninsula with the Soviets in the North and the US in the South accepting Japanese surrender

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December 1945

Moscow Conference

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August 1945

KPR established

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Syngman Rhee

South Korea leader 1948-60 who pursued a reunified Korea

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Dean Acheson

Lawyer and keen Democrat who served in the State Department under Roosevelt and Truman. Highly influential under Truman, and later leader of the Wise Men who advised Johnson on Vietnam

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United Nations (UN)

Set up in 1945 with 50 nations signing its founding charter, all pledging to assist any other member victim to aggression

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March 1949

US Defensive Perimeter Strategy

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