HideShow resource information
the size and energy of a wave is influenced by...
How long the wind has been blowing, strength of wind, fetch
1 of 65
the strength of open water which the wind blows
2 of 65
The longer the fetch of a wave...
The more powerful a wave can become
3 of 65
When a wave breaks, water is washed up the beach, this is called
The swash
4 of 65
Backwash is...
When the water runs back down the beach
5 of 65
Swash stronger than backwash- builds up beach...
Constructive wave
6 of 65
Backwash is stronger than swash, erodes beach...
Destructive beach
7 of 65
Breaking waves plunge downwards
8 of 65
Breaking waves spill forwards
9 of 65
Steep wave front
10 of 65
Gently sloping wave front
11 of 65
4 types of erosion
Hydraulic action, abrasion, attrition, solution
12 of 65
Water is forced into cracks, compresses air inside, forces rock apart
Hydraulic action
13 of 65
Sediment thrown against the cliff- wears and chips away the cliff
14 of 65
Loose sediment knocked off cliff by HA and abrasion- swirled round by the waves & collides with other sediment
15 of 65
Chemicals in seawater dissolves rock e.g, limestone
16 of 65
Small indentation cut into the cliff roughly at high tide level due to concentrated erosion
Wave cut notch
17 of 65
Wave cut notch gets deeper until the overhanging cliff collapses.. leaves a wide, gently sloping rocky surface at the foot of a cliff
Wave cut platform
18 of 65
Where coats are formed at alternating bands of More/ less resistant rock
Headlands and bays
19 of 65
Chalk and limestone are examples of...
More resistant rock
20 of 65
Clay and sands are examples of...
Less resistant rock
21 of 65
A joint or fault in resistant rock widened by abrasion and hydraulic action is called...
A cave
22 of 65
Waves make a cave larger and eventually cut through the headland to form...
An arch
23 of 65
How is a tall stack formed?
Arch is continually widened by erosion until it collapses
24 of 65
How is a short stump formed?
The stack is eroded, weathered and undercut, where it collapses
25 of 65
4 types of coastal transportation
Suspension, solution, traction, saltation
26 of 65
suspension is..
fine sediment is carried in suspension in the water- looks murky
27 of 65
solution is...
dissolved material carried along in a solution
28 of 65
Larger pebbles are rolled along the sea bed...
29 of 65
Small pebbles hit eachother in a hopping motion
30 of 65
The movement of sediment is called...
Longshore drift
31 of 65
in LSD, sediment is transported when waves hit the beach at an angle due to...
prevailing wind
32 of 65
What shape-like is is moved by in longshore drift
Zig-zag like
33 of 65
Groynes are...
Large wooden fences which trap sediment on a beach
34 of 65
Definition of beaches...
Accumulations of sand and shingle found where deposition occurs at the coast
35 of 65
Sandy beaches are often formed in sheltered bays due to...
wave refraction
36 of 65
Pebble beaches occur when...
The cliffs are being eroded due to higher energy waves
37 of 65
Long narrow ridges of sand and shingle stretching out from the coast are called
38 of 65
Spits are formed when
when sediment is transported by LSD and coast suddenly changes direction so deposition occurs
39 of 65
Spits are often colonised by
40 of 65
What develop on the sheltered, calm landward side of the spits...
Mudflats and slat marshes- important habitats for wildlife
41 of 65
Long narrow ridges of sand and shingle that grow across an entire bay due to LSD
42 of 65
Bars are often
spits which have grown across the entire bay
43 of 65
Bars trap...
Shallow freshwater lakes or lagoons
44 of 65
The lakes/lagoons eventually...
Fill up with sediment due to continued deposition
45 of 65
Bars can be broken thorugh by...
Storm waves
46 of 65
Why do cliffs collapse?
a combination of marine/ sub-ariel/ land proccesses
47 of 65
3 types of weathering are...
Mechanical/physical, chemical, biological
48 of 65
What is freeze-thaw?
When temps drop below freezing at night- water in cracks expands by 9% forcing the rock apart
49 of 65
Sliding and slumping are types of...
Mass movement
50 of 65
Clay becomes saturated during heavy rainfall and oozes down
51 of 65
Sliding is...
When large chunks of rock slide down-slope very quickly without any warning
52 of 65
Case study of Cliff collapse is...
Christchurch Bay
53 of 65
Sea level rise case study is..
The Maldives
54 of 65
Hard engineering involves...
building physical, solid manmade structures to stop the waves in their tracks
55 of 65
Concrete structures that absorb the energy of waves & provide a promende...
Sea walls
56 of 65
positive of sea walls
Long lasting and effective
57 of 65
Negative of sea walls
Expensive- cost £2,000 per metre
58 of 65
Groynes are
long wooden fences to stop transportation of sediment through LSD
59 of 65
3 Negatives of groynes
£2,000 per metre, disrupt the natural movement and increases erosion further down coast
60 of 65
positive of groynes
effective at maintaining beaches where they are built
61 of 65
Gabions are...
Rocks/boulders held in wire mesh cables
62 of 65
Function of Gabions...
to protect vulnerable areas from destructive waves
63 of 65
Positive of Gabions
Cheapest option- £100 per metre
64 of 65
Negative of Gabions
Not very strong, needs more maintenance
65 of 65

Other cards in this set

Card 2




the strength of open water which the wind blows

Card 3


The longer the fetch of a wave...


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


When a wave breaks, water is washed up the beach, this is called


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Backwash is...


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Water and rivers resources »