Coast

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the size and energy of a wave is influenced by...
How long the wind has been blowing, strength of wind, fetch
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Fetch=
the strength of open water which the wind blows
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The longer the fetch of a wave...
The more powerful a wave can become
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When a wave breaks, water is washed up the beach, this is called
The swash
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Backwash is...
When the water runs back down the beach
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Swash stronger than backwash- builds up beach...
Constructive wave
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Backwash is stronger than swash, erodes beach...
Destructive beach
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Breaking waves plunge downwards
Destructive
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Breaking waves spill forwards
Constructive
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Steep wave front
Destructive
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Gently sloping wave front
Constructive
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4 types of erosion
Hydraulic action, abrasion, attrition, solution
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Water is forced into cracks, compresses air inside, forces rock apart
Hydraulic action
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Sediment thrown against the cliff- wears and chips away the cliff
Abrasion
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Loose sediment knocked off cliff by HA and abrasion- swirled round by the waves & collides with other sediment
Attrition
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Chemicals in seawater dissolves rock e.g, limestone
Solution
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Small indentation cut into the cliff roughly at high tide level due to concentrated erosion
Wave cut notch
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Wave cut notch gets deeper until the overhanging cliff collapses.. leaves a wide, gently sloping rocky surface at the foot of a cliff
Wave cut platform
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Where coats are formed at alternating bands of More/ less resistant rock
Headlands and bays
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Chalk and limestone are examples of...
More resistant rock
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Clay and sands are examples of...
Less resistant rock
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A joint or fault in resistant rock widened by abrasion and hydraulic action is called...
A cave
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Waves make a cave larger and eventually cut through the headland to form...
An arch
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How is a tall stack formed?
Arch is continually widened by erosion until it collapses
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How is a short stump formed?
The stack is eroded, weathered and undercut, where it collapses
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4 types of coastal transportation
Suspension, solution, traction, saltation
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suspension is..
fine sediment is carried in suspension in the water- looks murky
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solution is...
dissolved material carried along in a solution
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Larger pebbles are rolled along the sea bed...
Traction
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Small pebbles hit eachother in a hopping motion
saltation
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The movement of sediment is called...
Longshore drift
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in LSD, sediment is transported when waves hit the beach at an angle due to...
prevailing wind
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What shape-like is is moved by in longshore drift
Zig-zag like
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Groynes are...
Large wooden fences which trap sediment on a beach
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Definition of beaches...
Accumulations of sand and shingle found where deposition occurs at the coast
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Sandy beaches are often formed in sheltered bays due to...
wave refraction
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Pebble beaches occur when...
The cliffs are being eroded due to higher energy waves
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Long narrow ridges of sand and shingle stretching out from the coast are called
Spits
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Spits are formed when
when sediment is transported by LSD and coast suddenly changes direction so deposition occurs
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Spits are often colonised by
vegetation
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What develop on the sheltered, calm landward side of the spits...
Mudflats and slat marshes- important habitats for wildlife
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Long narrow ridges of sand and shingle that grow across an entire bay due to LSD
Bars
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Bars are often
spits which have grown across the entire bay
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Bars trap...
Shallow freshwater lakes or lagoons
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The lakes/lagoons eventually...
Fill up with sediment due to continued deposition
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Bars can be broken thorugh by...
Storm waves
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Why do cliffs collapse?
a combination of marine/ sub-ariel/ land proccesses
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3 types of weathering are...
Mechanical/physical, chemical, biological
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What is freeze-thaw?
When temps drop below freezing at night- water in cracks expands by 9% forcing the rock apart
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Sliding and slumping are types of...
Mass movement
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Clay becomes saturated during heavy rainfall and oozes down
Slumping
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Sliding is...
When large chunks of rock slide down-slope very quickly without any warning
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Case study of Cliff collapse is...
Christchurch Bay
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Sea level rise case study is..
The Maldives
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Hard engineering involves...
building physical, solid manmade structures to stop the waves in their tracks
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Concrete structures that absorb the energy of waves & provide a promende...
Sea walls
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positive of sea walls
Long lasting and effective
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Negative of sea walls
Expensive- cost £2,000 per metre
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Groynes are
long wooden fences to stop transportation of sediment through LSD
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3 Negatives of groynes
£2,000 per metre, disrupt the natural movement and increases erosion further down coast
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positive of groynes
effective at maintaining beaches where they are built
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Gabions are...
Rocks/boulders held in wire mesh cables
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Function of Gabions...
to protect vulnerable areas from destructive waves
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Positive of Gabions
Cheapest option- £100 per metre
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Negative of Gabions
Not very strong, needs more maintenance
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Fetch=

Back

the strength of open water which the wind blows

Card 3

Front

The longer the fetch of a wave...

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When a wave breaks, water is washed up the beach, this is called

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Backwash is...

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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