Cloning animals

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  • Created by: Steff06
  • Created on: 04-06-16 08:58
What cells are naturally capable of developing into a new individual?
Embryonic cells.
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What type of cells are these?
Totipotent stem cells - can differentiate into any type pf adult cell.
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What are the 2 methods of artificially cloning animals?
Splitting embryos and nuclear transfer.
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What is required for splitting embryos and what is needed from them?
A high value male - collect sperm and female - collect eggs.
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What happens to the sperm and egg?
Undergo in vitro fertilisation and grow in vitro into 16-cell embryo.
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What happens to this embryo and what is produced?
Split embryo into several separate segments and implant into each surrogate mother - clones produced.
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What is collected from the two adults?
Mammary cells removed from ones udder and ovum (egg) taken from another.
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Describe this in simpler terms
A differentiated cell from an adult can be taken and its nucleus placed in an egg cell which has had its own nucleus removed.
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What can this cell with a removed nucleus be called?
Enucleated.
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What happens to the ovum and mammary cells?
Nucleus removed from ovum and mammary cells placed in culture.
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What then happens to these cells?
Mammary cells with nucleus and enucleate ovum undergo electrofusion.
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What does this fusion produce?
A reconstructed cell with one animals cytoplasm and one animals nucleus.
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Where is the reconstructed cell placed?
Culture in tied oviduct of sheep.
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What is recovered and what happens to this
Early embryo is recovered and implanted into surrogate mother ewe's uterus.
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What is then produced?
A clone of the animal who provided the nucleus.
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Provide an example of the original animals used and the clone produced
Finn Dorset and Scottish Blackface to produce Dolly the sheep - a Finn Dorset
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What are the advantages of cloning animals?
High-value animal cloned in large numbers e.g. high milk yield. Rare animals can be cloned. Genetically modified animals can be quickly reproduced.
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What are the disadvantages of cloning animals?
High-value animals are not produced with animal welfare in mind. Genetic uniformity makes it hard to adapt to environment. Unclear if animals cloned using nuclear material from an adult cell will be healthy.
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What can we now clone cells to generate?
Clone cells to generate cells, tissues and organs to replace those damaged by diseases or accidents.
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What are the advantages of using cloned cells for this?
Will not be rejected as genetically identical. An end to waiting for donor organs to be available. Cloned cells can generate any cell type. Less dangerous than a major operation.
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Describe the possibilities for non-reproductive cloning
Regeneration of heart muscle cells after a heart attack, repair of nervous tissue destroyed by diseases. Repairing spinal cord of those paralysed.
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What are these techniques often referred to as?
Therapeutic cloning.
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What have researchers recently been able to do?
Successfully reprogrammed human skin cells to become pluripotent.
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What did the researchers identify and what are they called?
Identified 4 essential regulator genes and called the cells induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells).
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What type of cells are these?

Back

Totipotent stem cells - can differentiate into any type pf adult cell.

Card 3

Front

What are the 2 methods of artificially cloning animals?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is required for splitting embryos and what is needed from them?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens to the sperm and egg?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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