Cloning in animals

Give an example of natural cloning in invertebrates
Starfish can regenerate a whole new genetically identical starfish from fragments of the original if damaged
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Describe artificial cloning in invertebrates
It is relatively easy, e.g. liquidise a sponge or chop up a starfish and clones will form from most of the fragments
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Give an example of natural cloning in vertebrates
The main form is monozygotic twins (identical twins), early embryo splits to form 2 separate embryos with same genetic information
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What is artificial twinning?
Manually splitting the embryo into a number of pieces, resulting in a number of genetically identical offspring (all monozygotic)
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How is the embryo made/formed?
A cow with desirable trait is treated with hormones so she super-ovulates, releasing more mature ova than usual, ova fertilised either naturally or artificially with desirable bull's sperm, then the early embryo is flushed out of cow's system
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What happens once the early embryo is out of the cow?
Around day 6 the embryo cells are still totipotent so they are split into several smaller embryos, each grown in lab for a few days and then inserted into surrogate, embryos develop and are born into calves who are all genetically identical
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Why is artificial twinning not a form of adult somatic cloning?
Because it is the cloning of the embryo not the parent so the calves from artificial twinning are all genetically identical to each other but not to their parents
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What is somatic cell nuclear transfer?
The cloning of an adult animal from an adult somatic (body) cell
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What are the basic stages of somatic cell nuclear transfer?
Nucleus removed from somatic cell of animal to be cloned, another female donated an enucleated mature ovum, mild electric shocks given to fuse nucleus into enucleated ovum and it begins to divide, embryo develops and is placed in a third female
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When the clone is born, where will its genetic information come from?
The adult who donated the somatic cell nucleus
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What is the difference between the clone and the adult it is a clone of?
The clone has different mitochondrial DNA as that comes from the egg cell
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Dolly the sheep was the first mammal clone (1996), what was an issue found with Dolly?
She developed arthritis and lung disease at 6 years old (something that only occurs in sheep much older than she was) and had to be put down, so there were concerns with premature aging
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However, what have they found in Japan?
They have managed to clone several generations of mice which all live to their full life expectancy
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Arguments for animal cloning
AT- more offspring than normal (higher yield), SCNT- an important process for pharming, clone specific animals (top-class race horses, pets), potential to reproduce endangered and even extinct animals
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Arguments against animal cloning
SCNT- inefficient process, takes many eggs to produce single offspring, many cloned embryos fail to develop and miscarry or produce deformed offspring, shortened life spans, relatively unsuccessful in increasing certain populations
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe artificial cloning in invertebrates

Back

It is relatively easy, e.g. liquidise a sponge or chop up a starfish and clones will form from most of the fragments

Card 3

Front

Give an example of natural cloning in vertebrates

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is artificial twinning?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How is the embryo made/formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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