Child Language Acquisition

Key theorists, terms, and AO2 ideas for quick revision.

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One Word Stage (Holophrase)
12-18 months; single words which help convey meaning e.g. "Juice"; gesture and intonation
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Two Word Stage
18-24 months; correct syntax e.g. "Daddy gone"; omission of key grammatical function words
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Telegraphic Stage
2-3 years; wider structures used e.g. interrogatives, imperatives, simple statements; determiners, auxillary verbs, and prepositions are all omitted
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Post-Telegraphic Stage
36+ months; more than one clause used; most basic grammar rules mastered
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Features of CDS
Repetition, recast, present tense, fewer verbs, closed questions, a higher pitch, child's name, one-word utterance, concrete nouns, and pauses.
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What is LASS?
interaction with other adults to support development
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Eve Clark's Theory
Common adjectives are among children's first 50 words
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Bellugi's Theory of Negation
Stage one: "no" at the start/end; stage two: "no" in the middle, "can't" and "don't" sometimes used; stage three: more variety in modal verbs e.g. "didn't"; stage four: "didn't" used correctly
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Innateness
Linguistic universals = features shared by all languages e.g. nouns and verbs; universal grammar = inborn set of structural characteristics shared by all languages. Critical period is the time in which an individual must acquire language.
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Chomsky's Theory
All children have the ability to learn language due to "LAD" = language acquisition device; universal grammar hard-wired in their brains.
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Skinner's Theory
Children learn through social interaction; babies imitate adults; positive (recast) and negative ("that's wrong") reinforcement.
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What is underextension and overextension?
Underextension = word is given a narrower meaning e.g. "not a duck", "cat" is the family pet but no other cats. Overextension = word is given a broader meaning/linking objects with similar qualities and using same name e.g. "daddy" to mean all men.
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Definition of Deletion
Omitting the final consonant in words e.g. "do(g)", "cu(p)".
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Definition of Substitution
Submitting one sound for another e.g. "pip" for "ship"
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Definitions of Addition and Assimilation
Addition = adding an extra vowel sound to the ends of words e.g. "mummy", "doggie". Assimilation = changing one consonant or vowel for another e.g. "gog" for "dog".
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Definitions of Reduplication and Consonant Cluster Reduction
Reduplication = repeating a whole syllable e.g. "dada". Consonant cluster reduction = "pider" for "spider".
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Examples of Phonemic Simplification
Deletion, dropping letters, substitution for easier sounds e.g. "p" becomes "b"
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What is Active Construction of Grammar?
Children invent rules of grammar themselves e.g. adding "ed" to all verbs ("hitted") because they have heard "ed" used for other verbs.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

18-24 months; correct syntax e.g. "Daddy gone"; omission of key grammatical function words

Back

Two Word Stage

Card 3

Front

2-3 years; wider structures used e.g. interrogatives, imperatives, simple statements; determiners, auxillary verbs, and prepositions are all omitted

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

36+ months; more than one clause used; most basic grammar rules mastered

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Repetition, recast, present tense, fewer verbs, closed questions, a higher pitch, child's name, one-word utterance, concrete nouns, and pauses.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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