Child Language Acquisition

  • Created by: Briony98
  • Created on: 01-05-17 14:42
Katherine Nelson (1973)
First word categories are: naming, actions/events, describing/modifying things, personal/social words. 60% of first words are nouns.
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First Words, What They Contain
Content words - from word classes like nouns, verbs and adjectives. Function words - determiners, prepositions and auxiliary verbs, these have a grammatical rather than semantic function and are acquired later.
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Linguistic Stages of Development 1 + 2
1. Vegetative, sounds of discomfort or reflective actions, like gurgles and cries, age 0-4 months. 2. Cooing, comfort sounds and vocal play using open-mouthed vowel sounds, like laughing, age 4-7 months.
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Linguistic Stages Of Development 3 + 4
3. Babbling, repeated patterns of consonant and vowel sounds, like baba or dada, age 6 -12 months. 4. Proto-Words, vocalisations, not making actual words but used consistently for the same meaning, can include gestures, like mmm, age 9 - `12 months.
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Lexical and Grammatical Development 1 + 2
1. Holophrastic, one word uttereances, lexemes, age 12- 18 months. 2. Two word, subject + verb, verb + object, age 18-24 months.
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Lexical and Grammatical Development 3 + 4
3. Telegraphic, three or more words combined, subject + verb + object/adverbial/complement, age 24-36 months. 4. Post Telegraphic, more grammatically complex combinations, correct past tense etc, age 36+ months, reading and writing skills develop.
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Wug Test, Jean Berko Gleason (1958)
Called unfamiliar creature a "wug", introduced another and very yound child says "2 wug", rather than "wugs", which 4 to 5 year olds say. Findings show young children have internalised systematic aspects of the linguistic system, produce plurals etc.
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Chomsky's Nativism Theory
He believes that learning takes place through an innate brain mechanism, pre-programmed with the ability to acquire grammatical structures, a Langauge Acquisition Device (LAD).
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Evidence for Nativism
Children learning to speak don't make grammatical errors like getting subject, verb and object in wrong order, child can notice grammatically incorrect sentences, say ungrammatical things which they can't have learnt passively, etc.
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Evidence against Nativism
Even if children don't learn through imitation alone doesn't prove they have a LAD, feral children can't achieve complete communicative competence (supporting critical period hypothesis - acquired in a certain time frame).
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Phonological Errors - Deletion
Omitting the final consonants in a word e.g. do(g), cu(p).
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Phonological Errors - Substitution
Substituting one sounds for another, especially 'harder' sounds that develop later e.g. 'pip' for 'ship'.
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Phonological Errors - Addition
Adding an extra vowel sound to the ends of words e.g. 'doggie'.
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Phonological Errors - Assimilation
Changing one consonant or vowel for another e.g. 'gog' for 'dog'.
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Phonological Errors - Reduplication
Repeating a whole syllable e.g. 'dada', 'mama'.
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Phonological Errors - Consonant Cluster Reduction
Consonant clusters can be difficult to articulate, so children reduce them to smaller unit e.g. 'pider' for 'spider'.
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Phonological Errors - Deletion of Unstressed Syllables
Omitting the opening syllable i polysyllabic words e.g. 'nana' for 'banana'.
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Berko and Brown (1960s)
Child referred to a plastic fish as 'fis', when adult said 'fis' child corrected them and said no 'fis', and understood 'fish' as the correct word, so child just can't pronounce the 'sh sound,
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Eve Clark - First Words.
Children base overextension on two things. 1. the physical qualities of an object. 2. features such as taste, sound, movement, shape, size and texture.
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Categorical Overextension
Name for one member of a category is extended to all members of the category (60%). e.g. calling all fruit apples.
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Analogical Overextension
Word for one object is extended outside of its category (15%), e.g. ball used for a round fruit.
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Mismatch Statements
One word sentences that appear quite abstract, child makes a statement about one object in relation to another (25%), e.g. saying 'duck' when looking at an empty pond.
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Piaget - Cognitive Theory
Emphasised that children are learners who use their environment and social interactions to shape their language. He linked linguistic development with an understanding of the concepts surrounding the words meaning, 'can't be taught before ready'.
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Developmental Stages - Sensorimotor
Child experiences the physical world through the senses and begins classifying the things in it, lexical choices are concrete rather than abstract. Object permanence develops (concepts objects exist out of sight), age 0-2 years.
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Developmental Stages - Pre-operational
Language and motor skills develop and become more competent, language is egocentric (focused on child/used by child when no one is around), age 2-7 years.
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Developmental Stages - Concrete Operational
Children begin thinking logically about concrete events. age 7-11 years.
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Developmental Stages - Formal Operational
Abstract reasoning skills develop, age 11+ years.
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Cognitive Theory - Eve Clark
Found that common adjectives, 'nice' and 'big' are among children's first 50 words, but spatial adjectives 'wide' and 'narrow' are acquired later.
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Adjectives - common over spatial
Piaget - don't develop motor skills or logical thinking until they're older, hear the common more often, spatial adjectives harder to understand (specific lexis and more understanding needed), spatial are abstract concepts.
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Syntactical Advances
Allow children to: 1. Order words into phrases and clauses. 2. make different types of utterances for different functions apart from the declarative.
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Morphological Advances
Allow children to: 1. Add inflections to words creating tense, showing possession and making plurals (inflectional). 2. Experiment with language, adding prefixes and suffixes convert from one word class to another (derivational).
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Skinner - Behaviourist Theory
Believed that, as children get either positive or negative reinforcement for their verbal behaviour, they're conditioned into using the right language. Attention and praise given as positive reinforcement.
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Play and Language - Vygotsky
Young children use props as 'pivots' to support their play, when older they use their imagination. They role play adult behaviours as part of exploring their environment.
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Play and Language - Garvey
Children adopt roles and identities, acting out story lines and inventing objects and settings as required in a role play scenario, pretend play.
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Sociodramatic Play
Begins when children are around 4, possibly linking to cognitive understanding. They use feild specific lexis, and structure them in formulaic ways, so observe and imitate adult behaviours.
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Child Directed Speech (CDS)
Language focused on child rather than specific role of the adult, usually involves simplified vocabulary, melodic pitch, repetitive questioning and a slow/deliberate tempo.
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Bruner - Language Acquisition Support System (LASS)
Says this is the only way that children develop effective language skills. Game play, repetition, differing speech from adults.
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LASS - Scaffolding
Adult uses language that's slightly above the child's own level of understanding this will help the child understand and use more complex language (Keenan 2002)
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Haliday's Functions of Speech
Instrumental: fulfil a need, Regulatory: influence behaviour of others, Interactional: develop/maintain relationships, Personal: Convey opinions/ideas, Representational: convey facts/info, Imaginative: create imaginary world, Heuristic: environment.
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Dore's Language Functions
Labelling: naming something, Repeating: repeating adult speech, Answering: responding to utterance, Requesting Action: asking - something to be done, Calling: getting attention - shouting, Greeting, Protesting: objecting, Practicing: no adults.
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Pragmatics is About
1. Implicature: what we mean, not what we say, 2. Inference: interpreting what others mean, 3. Politeness: right words/phrases to be polite, 4. conversational management and turn taking.
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Froebel (1974)
Adult responsible for education of child must be concerned with child's unfolding, and the benefit of playing to learn.
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Holdaway (1979)
Children learn naturally in home environment and interaction with parents, that children emulate the reading model set up by parents.
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Goodman (1967)
Reading a physcolinguistic guessing game, readers sample the text, make hypothesis, confirm or reject them, make new hypothesis. Reader at hearth of reading process.
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Books - Alliteration
Repetition of the same consonant sound.
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Books - Repeated Epithet
An additional name tag, often an adjective that goes in front of a character's name.
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Books - Balanced Sentence
When two ideas are placed side by side with the second complement, contrasting with or completing the first.
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Books - Assonance
Repetition of the same vowel sound.
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Books - Repeated Formula
Repeated spell or sequence of events.
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Books - Proverb or Aphorism
A saying or a summary of some accepted wisdom.
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Books - Parallel Sentences
Similar to balanced, but there is some repetition of the syntax.
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Books - Rhythmic Language
Doesn't necessarily refer to regular rhythms but emphasises some words over others, often using combination of alliteration and parallel sentences.
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Books - Epithet as Metaphor
Some epithets combine with other words to create new ways of looking at familiar ideas.
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Books - Additive Structure
Events of story will tend to be linked using 'and' and 'but' rather than more complex structures using 'because', 'therefore' and 'if'.
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Phonology - Articulators
Passive articulators don't move. teeth, palate etc. Active articulators do, tongue, lips etc. Children's articulators develop over time, need to acquire sounds of English to be able to articulate words correctly.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Content words - from word classes like nouns, verbs and adjectives. Function words - determiners, prepositions and auxiliary verbs, these have a grammatical rather than semantic function and are acquired later.

Back

First Words, What They Contain

Card 3

Front

1. Vegetative, sounds of discomfort or reflective actions, like gurgles and cries, age 0-4 months. 2. Cooing, comfort sounds and vocal play using open-mouthed vowel sounds, like laughing, age 4-7 months.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

3. Babbling, repeated patterns of consonant and vowel sounds, like baba or dada, age 6 -12 months. 4. Proto-Words, vocalisations, not making actual words but used consistently for the same meaning, can include gestures, like mmm, age 9 - `12 months.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

1. Holophrastic, one word uttereances, lexemes, age 12- 18 months. 2. Two word, subject + verb, verb + object, age 18-24 months.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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