Chemistry - Metals

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  • Created by: becky.65
  • Created on: 07-05-15 19:06
List the reactivity series in order from most reactive to least reactive
Potassium, Sodium, Lithium, Calcium, Magnesium, Aluminium, Zinc, Iron, Tin, Lead, Copper, Silver, Gold
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What happens in a displacement reaction?
A more reactive metal will displace a less reactive metal from an aqueous solution of one of its salts
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What is the word equation for magnesium and copper sulfate?
magnesium + copper(ii) sulfate -> magnesium sulfate + copper
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What is the symbol equation for magnesium and copper sulfate?
Mg(s) + CuSO4(aq) --> MgSO4(aq) + Cu(s)
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What does an ionic equation show?
Only the atoms and ions that change in the reaction
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What is the ionic equation for magnesium and copper sulfate?
Mg(s) + Cu (aq) --> Mg (aq) +Cu(s)
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What is oxidation?
The loss of electrons
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What is reduction?
The gain of electrons
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What is a metal ore?
A metal ore contains enough of the metal to make it economic to extract the metal
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What is carbon more reactive than?
Zinc, iron, tin, lead, copper
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How can carbon be used be used to extract metals from their ore?
By heating the metal oxide with carbon. The carbon removes the oxygen from the metal oxide to form carbon dioxide and the metal is formed as an element
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What is the pattern for this reaction?
metal oxide + carbon --> metal + carbon dioxide
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What is the removal of oxygen from a compound called?
Chemical reduction
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How can metals that are more reactive than carbon be extracted from their ores?
By electrolysing the molten metal compound
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What are the two main methods of obtaining copper metal from the ore?
1) Sulfuric acid to produce copper sulfate solution, before extracting the copper 2) Smelting where we heat copper ore very strongly in a furnace with air to produce crude copper metal
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Give two examples of a copper ore
Chalcocite and Malachite
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What charge to metal ions always have?
Positive charge
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In electrolysis, what are the metal ions attracted to?
The negative electrode
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What is the chemical name for the negative and positive electrode?
Negative = cathode Positive = anode
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What is the ionic half equation for copper cathode?
Cu (aq) + 2e --> Cu(s)
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What is the ionic half equation for copper anode?
Cu(s) --> Cu (aq) + 2e
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What are two new ways of extracting copper from low-grade ores?
Bioleaching and phytomining
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What happens in phytomining?
Plant absorb the copper ions as they grow and the plants are then burned and the metals can be extracted from the ash. The copper ions can be 'leached' from the ash by adding sulfuric acid. This makes a solution of copper sulfate
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What happens in bioleaching?
Bacteria feed on metal ores. By a combination of biological and chemical processes, we get a solution of copper ions from waste copper ore. Once again, we use scrap iron and electrolysis to extract copper from the solution.
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What are three properties of metals?
Good conductors of heat and electricity, high melting and boiling point and malleble
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Why are metals good conductors of heat and electricity?
The delocalised electrons can readily flow through the giant metallic lattice. The electrical current and heat energy are transferred quickly through the metal by the free-moving electrons
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Why do metals have high melting and boiling points?
The bonds between the metal ions and electrons are very strong so it holds them together
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Why are metals malleble?
The layers of atoms in a pure metal are able to slide over each other easily without breaking the metal structure
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What are alloys?
Mixtures of metals
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What is a shape memory alloy?
Mixture of metals which responds to changes in temperature. When you heat them up, they return to their original shape automatically
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What are the uses of shape memory alloys?
Hold broken bones in place, make braces pull teeth into the right position
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What are the raw materials used in a blast furnace to extract iron?
Iron ore (called haematite), coke (carbon), air and limestone
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Why is it called a blast furnace?
High temperatures are generated inside the furnace by blasts of hot air, containing oxygen, which reacts with the coke
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Why does iron straight from the blast furnace have limited uses?
It contains about 96% iron and other impurities which makes the iron brittle, although very hard and can't be easily compressed
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Why does pure iron not have many uses?
It is too soft
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What are steels?
Alloys of iron
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How can we change the properties of steels?
By carefully adding controlled amounts of other elements
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How is low-carbon steel made?
By removing most carbon from cast iron
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What are the properties of low-carbon steel?
Soft, easily shaped and unlikely to shatter on impact with a hard objct
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What are the properties of high-carbon steel?
Very strong but brittle
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How is stainless steel made?
By adding chromium and nickel
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What are the properties of stainless steel?
Hard, strong and doesn't corrode
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happens in a displacement reaction?

Back

A more reactive metal will displace a less reactive metal from an aqueous solution of one of its salts

Card 3

Front

What is the word equation for magnesium and copper sulfate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the symbol equation for magnesium and copper sulfate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does an ionic equation show?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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