Chemistry F321

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Atomic number
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
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Mass number
Number of protons plus neutrons in an atom
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Isotopes
Atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
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Orbital
A region in space where there is a high probability of finding up to 2 electrons of opposite spin
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Relative isotopic mass
Mass of a particular isotope, compared to C-12 which has a mass of 12
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Relative atomic mass
Average mass per atom of an element, compared to C-12, which has a mass of 12
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Relative molecular mass
Average mass of a molecule, compared to C-12, which has a mass of 12
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Relative aformula mass
Average mass of a formula unit of an ionic compound, compared to C-12, which has a mass of 12
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First ionisation energy
The energy needed to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of gaseous atoms
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Ionisation energy
The energy needed to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of gaseous atoms
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Mole
Unit for expressing amount of substance
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Molar mass
The mass of one mole of substance
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Avagadro's number:
Number of particles present in one mole
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Empirical formula
The formula showing the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a substance
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Molecular formula
The formula showing the actual number of each type of atom in a molecule
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Acid
Proton donors (releases H+ in aqueous solution)
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Base
Proton acceptors
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Alkali
A soluble base that releases OH- in a solution
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Base
Formed when the H+ ion of an acid is replaced by a metal ion or NH4+
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Ionic bond
Electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
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Covalent bond
A shared pair of electrons between two atoms
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Dative covalent bond
A shared pair of electrons where one of the atoms supplies both bonding electrons
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Metallic bond
Electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions (in regular lattice) and the delocalised valence electrons
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Inter-molecular forces
The forces of attraction between covalent molecules (VDW, dipole-dipole attractions and hydrogen bonds)
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Hydrogen bond
Hydrogen bonds only occur in molecules in which hydrogen is directly bonded to O,N or F. They are formed between a partially positive hydrogen atom in one molecule and a lone pair of electrons on O,N or F of a neighbouring molecule
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Electronegativity
The ability of an atom to attract the electrons in a covalent bond
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Periodicity
Repeating patterns in chemical/physical properties across periods
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Volatility
Ease of evaporation of a substance
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Oxidation number
The 'charge' on an element in a compound/ion
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Oxidation
Loss of electrons (increase in oxidation state)
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Reduction
Gain of electrons (decrease in oxidation state)
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Disproportionation reaction
A reaction were the same species is simultaneously oxidised and reduced
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Redox reaction
Reaction where both reduction and oxidation take place
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Oxidising power
The ability of an atom to gain electrons from another atom
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Oxidising agent
Species that brings about oxidation (removes electrons)
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Reducing agent
Species that brings about reduction (supplies electrons)
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Reference oxidation numbers
H+/group 1=+1, group 2=+2, F=-1, O=usually -2, group 7=usually =1 unless combined with oxygen
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Number of protons plus neutrons in an atom

Back

Mass number

Card 3

Front

Atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A region in space where there is a high probability of finding up to 2 electrons of opposite spin

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Mass of a particular isotope, compared to C-12 which has a mass of 12

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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