Chemistry F321 AS

Chemistry revision cards from specification for Unit F321

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Atomic Structure

Why do isotopes not have different chemical properties?

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Atomic Structure

Chemical properties are decided by electron configuration and isotopes have the same number of electrons, just a different number of neutrons

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Atomic Structure

Describe the difference between C12 and C17

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Atomic Structure

C12 and C17 have 6 protons and 6 electrons but C12 has 6 neutrons when C17 has 11 neutrons

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Atomic Structure

What are the relative charges and relative masses of protons neutrons and electrons?

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Atomic Structure

Relative charge: Electron = -1

Proton = +1

Neutron = neutral

Relative Mass: Electron = negligible

Proton = 1

Neutron = 1

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Atomic Structure

Describe the distribution of mass and charge within an atom

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Atomic Structure

Protons and neutrons in an atom are tightly packed together in the positively charged nucleus. The negatively charged electrons are around the nucleus in certain energy levels

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Atomic Structure

Define atomic number and mass number

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Atomic Structure

Atomic number is the number of protons and electrons in the atom

Mass number is the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus

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Atomic Structure

What is an isotope?

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Atomic Structure

A species with the same number of protons and electrons but different number of neutrons

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Atomic Structure

What isotope is used as the standard measurement of relative masses?

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Atomic Structure

Carbon 12

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Atomic Structure

Define relative isotopic mass

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Atomic Structure

The relative mass of one atom of that isotope compared to 12th the mass of one C12 atom

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Atomic Structure

Define relative atomic mass

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Atomic Structure

The average weighted mass of one atom of an element compared to 12th the mass of one C12 atom

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Atomic Structure

What is the relative atomic mass of a substance containing 88.2% C12 and 11.8% C14?

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Atomic Structure

88.2 x 12 = 1058.4

11.8 x 14 = 165.2

1058.4 +165.2 = 1223.6

1223.6 / 100 = 12.236

Relative atomic mass = 12.2 (3sf)

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Atomic Structure

Define relative molecular mass

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Atomic Structure

The average weighted mean mass of a molecule compared with 12th the mass of one C12 atom

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Atomic Structure

Define relative formula mass

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Atomic Structure

The average weighted mean mass of one formula unit compared to 12th the mass of one C12 atom

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Atomic Structure

Calculate the relative molecular mass of H2SO4

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Atomic Structure

H2 = 2

S = 32.1

O4 = 16 x 4

= 2 + 32.1 + (16 x 4)

98.1

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Atomic Structure

Calculate the percentage composition of silicon in Silicon oxide SiO2

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Atomic Structure

Mr of Silicon Oxide = 28 + (16 x 2) = 60

Percentage of Silicon = 28/60 x 100 = 47%

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Atomic Structure

Calculate the percentage of water in copper sulphate crystals CuSO4.5H2O

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Atomic Structure

Mr of Copper Sulfate crystals = 63.5 + 32.1 + (16 x 4) + 5(2+16) = 249.6

Mr of Water = 90

90/249.6 x 100 =36.1%

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Moles and Equations

What does the term "mole" mean?

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Moles and Equations

A mole is the amount of substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12g of Carbon 12

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Moles and Equations

What is the Avogadro Constant?

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Moles and Equations

6 x 10^23 - it is the actual number of particles in one mole

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Moles and Equations

What is molar mass?

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Moles and Equations

the mass per mole of a substance

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Moles and Equations

Calculate the molar mass of NaCl

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Moles and equations

Mr of Na = 23

Mr of Cl = 35.5

23 + 35.5 = 58.5

Molar Mass = 58.3g/mol

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Moles and Equations

Define Empirical Formula

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Atomic Structure

The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound

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Moles and Equations

Define molecular formula

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Moles and Equations

The actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule

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Moles and Equations

Given that 127g of copper combine with 32g of oxygen, what is the formula of copper oxide?

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Moles and Equations

Mr of Cu = 63.5

Mr of O = 16

Number of Moles = 127/63.5 32/16

=2 =2

Divide by 2

= 1 : 1

= CuO

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Moles and Equations

If the percentage of water in magnesium sulphate crystals is 51.2%, what is n in the formula MgSO4.nH2O?

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Moles and Equations

Formulae MgSO4 H2O

Masses 48.8g 51.2g

Mr 120 18

Number of Moles 48.8/120 51.2/18

= 0.406 = 2.85

Divide by 0.406 =1 mole = 7 moles

Empirical formula MgSO4.7H2O

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Moles and Equations

Analysis shows the empirical formula of a compound to be CH2H2O. Its relative molecular mass is 60. What is its molecular formula?

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Moles and Equations

Relative Molecular Mass = 60

Relative empirical formula mass = 12 +2 + 16 = 30

60/30 = 2

The molecular formula is double the empirical formula

The molecular formula is C2H4O2

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Acids

Define an acid

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Acids

An acid is a substance that produces hydrogen ions in solution

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Acid

What is the formula for hydrochloric, sulfuric and nitric acid?

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Acid

HCl, H2SO4, HNO3

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Acids

What are the 3 types of common bases

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Acids

Metal oxides, metal hydroxides and ammonia

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Acids

Define an alkali

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Acid

An alkali is a soluble base that releases OH- ions in aqueous solution

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Acids

What is the formula for Sodium Hydroxide, Potassium Hydroxide and aqueous ammonia?

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Acids

NaOH, KOH, NH3

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Acid

What is a salt?

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Acid

What is the formula for hydrochloric, sulfuric and nitric acid?

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Acid

It is a substance produced when the H+ ion of a an acid is replaced by a metal ion of NH4+

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Acid

HCl, H2SO4, HNO3

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Acids

What do the terms anhydrous, hydrated and water of crystallisation mean?

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Acids

What are the 3 types of common bases

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Acids

Anhydrous means the salt is not associated with water molecules/they have been removed.

Hydrated means the salt is associated with water molecules

The water of crystallisation is the hydrated salts prepared from evaporating soluble salts. It is the water molecules associating with salts.

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Acids

Metal oxides, metal hydroxides and ammonia

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Acids

What are the three methods of producing a salt and their products?

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Acids

Define an alkali

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Acids

Define a base

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Acid

An alkali is a soluble base that releases OH- ions in aqueous solution

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Acids

What is the formula for Sodium Hydroxide, Potassium Hydroxide and aqueous ammonia?

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Acids

NaOH, KOH, NH3

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Acid

What is a salt?

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Acid

It is a substance produced when the H+ ion of a an acid is replaced by a metal ion of NH4+

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Acids

What do the terms anhydrous, hydrated and water of crystallisation mean?

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Acids

Anhydrous means the salt is not associated with water molecules/they have been removed.

Hydrated means the salt is associated with water molecules

The water of crystallisation is the hydrated salts prepared from evaporating soluble salts. It is the water molecules associating with salts.

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Acids

What are the three methods of producing a salt and their products?

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Acids

Acid + Metal --> Salt + Hydrogen

Acid + Metal Carbonate --> Salt + Water + CO2

Acid + Base --> Salt + Water

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Acids

Define a base

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Acids

A base is a substance that readily accepts H+ ions from an acid

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Redox

What is oxidation and reduction

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Redox

Oxidation is loss of electrons, reduction is gain of electrons

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Redox

Give the equation for the reaction between calcium and Hydrochloric acid

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Redox

Ca + 2HCl --> CaCl2 + H2

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Electron Structure

Define 1st Ionisation Energy

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Electron Structure

The energy required to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous ions iwth a 1+ charge

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Electron Structure

Define Second Ionisation energy

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Electron Structure

The energy required to remove 1 mole of electrons from a gaseous ion with a 1+ charge to form 1 mole of gaseous ions with a 2+ charge

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Electron Structure

Describe the trend in 1st ionisation energy across period 3

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Electron Structure

Across period 3 ionisation energy increases as the electrons are added to the same shell but the nuclear charge increases, increasing the pull on each outer electron, decreasing the atomic radius. Therefore more energy is required to remove the outer electron

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Electron Structure

Explain why aluminium and Sulfur deviate from this general trend

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Electron Structure

Half filled or fully filled subshells are more stable than other subshells so with Aluminium as the outer electron is added to the 3p subshell, it is easier to remove than with Magnesium having a full 3s subshell, it is harder to remove the outer electrons.

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Electron Structure

Predict the trend in ionisation energy down group 2

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Electron Structure

Down group 2 the ionisation energy decreases because the nuclear charge increase is negated by an increase in sheilding and atomic radius. This makes it easier to remove the outer electron as the force of attraction between inner nucleus and outer electron is less due to the sheilding

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Electron Structure

How many electrons can fill the first 4 shells?

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Electron Structure

2,8,8,2

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Electron Structure

What is an orbital?

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Electron Structure

A region that can hold up to two electrons with opposite spins

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Electron Structure

How many orbitals make up the s, p and d subshells?

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Electron Structure

s= 1 orbital

p= 3 orbitals

d= 5 orbitals

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Electron Structure

How many electrons can the s, p and d subshells hold?

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Electron Structure

S= 2

P= 6

D= 10

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Electron Structure

What shape are S and P orbitals?

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Electron Structure

S is eliptical

P is a figure of 8

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Electron Structure

What groups are in S, P and D blocks in the periodic table

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Electron Structure

S = group 1 and 2

P = group 3, 4 ,5 ,6, 7, 8

D = transition metals

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Bonding and Structure

What is Ionic Bonding

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Bonding and Structure

the electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions

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Bonding and Structure

Define Covalent Bonding

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Bonding and Structure

A shared pair of electrons

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Bonding and structure

What is a dative covalent bond?

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Bonding and Structure

When both electrons in the bond are from the same atom

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Bonding and Structure

What is the formula for nitrate ions, carbonate ions, sulphate ions and ammonium ions?

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Bonding and Structure

NO3-

CO3 -2

SO4 -2

NH4 +

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Bonding and Structure

What determines the shape of a simple molecule?

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Bonding and Structure

It is determined by the repulsion between electron pairs surrounding a central atom and the number of regions of charge density

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Bonding and Structure

What kind of electron pair repulsion is the greatest?

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Bonding and Structure

Lone pair - lone pair repulsion is the greatest

then Lone pair - bonded pair repulsion

then Bonding pair - bonding pair repulsion

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Bonding and Structure

What makes a shape trigonal planar and give an example and a bond angle

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Bonding and Structure

3 areas of electron density Boron trichloride 120

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Bonding and Structure

What makes a shape tetrahedral and give an example and a bond angle

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Bonding and Structure

4 areas of electron density or 3 bonds and 1 lone pair. Methane 109.5

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Bonding and Structure

What makes a shape non linear and give an example and bond angle

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Bonding and Structure

3 or 4 areas of electron density. Either two lone pairs in Water or a lone pair and 2 linear double bonds as in sulfur dioxide. Angle depends on the shape. Water is 104.5 as it has 4 areas of electron density so is similar to tetrahedral just bent. Sulfur dioxide has angle of 118 as it is similar to trigonal planar with 3 areas of electron density but bent due to lone pair

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Bonding and Structure

What makes a shape pyramidal, give an example and a bond angle

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Bonding and Structure

4 areas of electron density , ammonia, 107

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Bonding and Structure

What makes a shape octahedral, give an example and a bond angle

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Bonding and Structure

6 areas of electron density, SF6 90

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Bonding and Structure

What shape and bond angle does Carbon Dioxide have?

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Bonding and Structure

Linear 180

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Bonding and Structure

Define the term electronegativity

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Bonding and Structure

The ability of an atom to attract the bonding electrons in a covalent bond

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Bonding and Structure

How does a permanent dipole arise?

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Bonding and Structure

covalently bonded molecules can have different electro-negativities resulting in the electrons in the bond being pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, resulting in an uneven distribution of charge and a polar bond

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Bonding and Structure

What are the 3 types of Intermolecular forces?

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Bonding and Structure

Hydrogen bonds

Permanent dipole dipole

Induced dipole dipole (Van der Waals)

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Bonding and Structure

Describe the difference in strength of the different intermolecular forces

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Bonding and Structure

Hydrogen bonds are the strongest

Permanent dipoles are the next strongest

Induced dipole dipole bonds are the weakest

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Bonding and Structure

How does hydrogen bonding occur?

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Bonding and Structure

Oxygen has a greater electro-negativity than hydrogen so induces a permanent dipole and has a polar bond. The lone pair on oxygen forms a hydrogen with the delta +ve hydrogen on a neighbouring water molecule. Hydrogen bonds can occur between Hydrogen and either Oxygen, Nitrogen or Fluorine

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Bonding and Structure

Explain how induced dipole dipole interactions (Van der Waals) occurs?

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Bonding and Structure

In an atom the electrons are constantly moving so at a point, they may be closer to one end than another. This induces a dipole. The electrons in neighbouring molecules are attracted to the delta -ve or repelled by the delta -ve inducing a dipole in neighbouring molecules.

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Bonding and Structure

Give 2 anomalous properties of water and explain how this occurs

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Bonding and Structure

Ice is less dense than water - hydrogen bonds hold water molecules in a crystalline lattice so molecules are far apart making it less dense

High boiling point - many strong hydrogen bonds in water which must be broken to boil the water which require a large amount of heat

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Bonding and Structure

Describe Metallic Bonding

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Bonding and Structure

It is the force of attraction between positive metal ions and sea of delocalised electrons

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Bonding and Structure

Across period 3, what elements form giant metallic, giant covalent and simple molecular structures?

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Bonding and Structure

Na, Mg and Al all form Giant metallic structures

Si forms a giant covalent structure

P, S, Cl and Ar all form simple molecular structures

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Bonding and Structure

Explain why Phosphorus has a higher boiling point than Chlorine

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Bonding and Structure

Phosphorus has 6 strong covalent bonds to be broken to boil it whereas chlorine only has 1 strong covalent bond. Thus Phosphorus requires more energy to break more bonds

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Bonding and Structure

Why does Magnesium have a higher boiling point than Sodium?

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Bonding and Structure

Magnesium has a 2+ charge and every atom donates 2 electrons to the sea of delocalised electrons therefore there is a greater force of attraction between the outer electrons and nucleus than in in Sodium where it only has a 1+ charge and donates 1 electron

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Periodicity

How are elements in the Periodic Table arranged?

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Periodicity

They are arranged according to increasing atomic number, in periods showing repeating trends in physical and chemical properties and in groups having similar physical and chemical properties

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Periodicity

What is periodicity?

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Periodicity

It is the study of recurring patterns in the periodic table in physical and chemical properties between the periods or groups

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Group 2

Describe the redox reactions of Group 2 elements with Oxygen with equations

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Group 2

Magnesium burns with a bright white flame

Calcium burns with a brick red flame

2Mg +O2 ---> 2MgO

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Group 2

Describe the redox reaction of the group 2 elements with water with an equation as an example

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Group 2

Beryllium has no reaction with water or steam even at red heat.

Magnesium burns in steam to produce magnesium oxide and hydrogen.

(http://www.chemguide.co.uk/inorganic/group2/padding.GIF)(http://www.chemguide.co.uk/inorganic/group2/mgh2oeqn.gif)

Very clean magnesium has a very slight reaction with cold water. The reaction soon stops because the magnesium hydroxide formed is almost insoluble in water and forms a barrier on the magnesium preventing further reaction.

(http://www.chemguide.co.uk/inorganic/group2/padding.GIF)(http://www.chemguide.co.uk/inorganic/group2/mgh2oeqn2.gif)


Note: As a general rule, if a metal reacts with cold water, you get the metal hydroxide. If it reacts with steam, the metal oxide is formed. This is because the metal hydroxides thermally decompose (split up on heating) to give the oxide and water.



These all react with cold water with increasing vigour to give the metal hydroxide and hydrogen.

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Group 2

Describe the action of water on oxides of elements in Group 2 and state the approximate pH of any resulting solution

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Group 2

MgO + H2O --> Mg(OH)2

Mg(OH)2 will have a pH of 9

Ca(OH)2 will have a pH of 11

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Group 2

Describe the thermal decomposition of the carbonates of elements in Group 2 and the trend in their ease of decomposition

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Group 2

Thermal decomposition is harder down the group as charge density decrease

CaCO3 ---> CaO + CO2

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Group 2

How is Mg(OH)2 and Ca(OH)2 used in industry?

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Group 7

Describe in terms of Van der Waals the trend in boiling point of I2, Br2 and Cl2

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Comments

Katie

154 cards? this must have taken you a long time!! thanks, good luck in your exam if you have it today :)

Diksha

Woow! must have been hardwork for you :)

thanks for this and for your time.

Good luck !!

gunit

thanks

Lizz lara

This is simply amazing, i tried doing this, but it got too tedious.....THANKS for your hardwork :]

faiza hussain

this is amazing, thnk u soo much ***, but ur question which is about the first four shells, its not 2,8,8,2, its actually 2,8,8,8 thts what my teacher told me :)

manga fan =D

Wow!!! ... as the others said this is amazing I would have never done that ... probably would have given up after the 2nd question =P

Thank you sooo much!!!! It really helped!!!!!! =D

Definitely a 5* =)

Lydia xo

WOW! thankyou sooo much for this!! 

Mariyah Jackson

wow!! thanks soo much its really helpful :) i just noticed some of your cards are repeated so you might want to look into that at about card numbers 60-70 ...otherwise the cards are great 

Unahogan

Great job with these thank you so much!! :) Some of the cards near the beginning are repeated (bases, acids and salts questions) but other than that I really appreciated this **

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