F321 Chemistry Notes

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  • Created by: Sanchia
  • Created on: 04-05-12 21:15


Isotopes Atoms of the same element - same number of protons and electrons - same chemical reactions (speed varies) Physical properties such as melting point and density varies

(Relative atomic mass x Abundance) + (repeat) / 100

+ Protons relative mass 1

Neutrons relative mass 1

- Electrons 1/2000th the mass of a proton

Relative Atomic Mass is the weighted mean mass of an atom of an element compared with 1/12 of the mass of an atom of Carbon 12

Relative Isotopic Mass is the mass of an atom of an isotope compared with1/12 of the mass of an atom of Carbon 12


Mole the amount of any substance containing as many particles as there are carbon atoms in exactly 12g of the carbon-12 isotope

Number of moles = Mass / Atomic Molecular Mass

Empirical Formula simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound

Mass / Atomic Mass = Moles / smallest number = Ratio

Molar mass Number of atoms of each element in a molecule

 Molecular Mass / Empirical = Number of molecules

 Molecular Formula Number of atoms of each element in a molecule

Avogadro's Law for any gas the number of particles is always the same

Volume of gas (cm3) / 24 (24000) = Number of moles

Concentration x Volume [cm3/1000] = Number of moles

1 Mole is equivalent to 6.023 x 10^23 (Avogadro's number) units of any substance.


Acid + Metal > Salt + Hydrogen

Acid + Metal Oxide > Salt + Water

Acid + Carbonate > Salt + Water + Carbon dioxide

Neutralisation H+(aq) + OH-(aq) > H2O (l)

Acid + Alkali > Salt + Water

Salt - The H+ ion in an acid has been replaced by a metal ion

Acids - HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 Alkalis (soluble base) - metal oxides, metal hydroxides, ammonia Finding x in hydrated solutions

Mass of solution - mass after heated - Use empirical formula method

Redox / Disproportionation 

Oxidation The number of electrons an element uses to bond to other atoms

Uncombined elements  - Ca, He, O2, Cl2 - Oxidation number of 0  

Combined oxygen - H2O, CO2 - Oxidation number of -2 

Combined hydrogen - HCl - Oxidation number = +1

Ions Li+ = +1, Ca2+ = +2, Cl- = -1 Oxidation number = depends on charge of ion 

Metals generally lose electrons and have an increase in oxidation number to form positive ions - oxidised Non-metals generally gain electrons and have a decrease in oxidation number to form negative ions - reduced 

Oxidation Involves Loss Reduction Involves Gain of electrons

Oxidation is an increase in oxidation number

Reduction is a decrease in oxidation number

Electron Structure

An atomic orbital is a space within an atom that can hold up to two electrons with an opposite spin S-Orbital 2e-  P-Orbital 6e-  D-Orbital 10 e-  F-Orbital 14 e-

Degenerate Orbitals (P, D, F)

The first ionisation energy of an element is the



Brilliant, thank you!!


this is awsome thanks!!


perfect to go over the day before my exam. 

Chrissie Antoniou

Seham wrote:

perfect to go over the day before my exam. 

Or the hour before xD


Oh this is brilliant! Thank you :)

Ruby Cooper

thanks babes

debbie amosu

thank you very useful 


good notes to use

thank you :)

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