Chemistry C1 Keywords

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The smallest part of an element which is still recognised as part of that element. These contain neutrons, protons and electrons.
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One type of atom with a specific number of protons and certain properties.
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Periodic table
A table used to arrange elements into groups and by electronic structure.
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A collumn on the periodic table which has elements with the same number of electrons on the outer shell
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Chemical symbol
The letters which are used to uniquelly identify an element eg. O for Oxygen
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The relatively small central part of an atom which contains neutrons and protons and of which electrons orbit
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A positive charged sub-atomic particle found in the nucleus
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A sub-atomic particle with no charge found in the nucleus
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A negatively charged sub-atomic particle which orbits the nucleus and has a very small relative mass
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Atomic number
The number used on a periodic table which equals the number of protons of an element.
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Mass number/relative atomic mass
The total (average) number of neutrons and protons inside an atom
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Sub-atomic particle
A particle found in any atom. The ones you need to know are electrons, neutrons and protons. Others include quarks, bosons eg. Higs boson.
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Energy levels as orbits around the nucleus, paths that electrons take. Only the outer shell takes part in reactions with other atoms.
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2 or more different elements which are chemically bonded together
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A charged atom when it has given or taken an electron. Have a more stable electronic structure (noble gas). Takes part in an ionic bond.
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One part of a compound eg. H2O in water
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Chemical reaction
A process which requires initial energy to form bonds between atoms to form new products from given reactants
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The substances produced in a chemical reactant from given reactants.
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The substances which are reacted together to form products
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Conservation of mass
The theory that in a chemical reaction there is no atoms or mass lost or created. Ie. The mass of the product = the mass of reaactants.
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Thermal decomposition
The type of chemical reaction where large molecules break down into smaller compounds and elements due to heating e.g the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate.
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A sedimentary rock often used in construction. A mixture of compounds but mostly calcium carbonate
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A mixture formed when a solute dissolves into a solvent which is generally water. Represented by (aq).
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A rock, metal compound, eg. metal oxide, which contains enough metal to make it economically viable to extract.
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The process(es) of removing a pure metal from it's ore.
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The most common method of extraction. A displacement reaction occurs with a metal oxide and carbon when the metal is lower on the reactivity series.
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A method of extraction where heating is used to seperate the metal from it's compound.
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A method of extraction when removes metal from the soil directly by using plants which are burned to leave the metal.
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Using bacteria to extract compounds from the soil by producing a leachate solution. Generally used for copper.
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A metal compound with other elements mixed in to change the properties of it.
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Transition metal
Metals in the middle section of the periodic table which have 3 or more shells. Useful as conductors and construction.
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A material such as metals and graphite which heat and/or electricity passes through easily.
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Materials which electricity and/or heat passes through slowly. Often used to reduce heat loss such as in experiments or housing.
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A natrual reaction between metals and oxygen from the surroundings such as air or water so the metal oxidises so is no longer pure.
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Multiple different elements and compounds which are not chemicaly bonded.
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Evapourating then condensing liquids, especially if they are mixtures for seperation.
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A type of organic chemical, a compound which contains carbon and hydrogen atoms. Found in crude oil.
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A type of hydrocarbon, saturated, with general formula CnHn+2
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A type of hydrocarbon, unsaturated, with general formula CnHn, has at least on carbon-carbon double bond.
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A range of boiling points and therefore size of molecule which crude oil is seperated into through fractional distillation
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Crude oil
A mixture of hydrocarbons found natrually. Seperated to make it more useful such as for fuel.
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Fractional distillation
A method of seperating crude oil using a fractional distillation collumn into small fractions
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Fractional distillation collumn
A collumn where crude oil is heated and cools to condense at its boiling point where it is tapped off. Contains trays with holes which seperate the fractions.
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How easy it is for a liquid to move and flow. The more viscous, the 'thicker' it is.
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Boiling point
The temperature at which a substance most rapidly changes between liquid and gas state.
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Melting point
The temperature at which a substance most rapidly changes between its liquid and solid state.
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A chemical burnt to produce energy, the more energy produces per set volume/mass, the better the fuel.
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A small solid particle remaining after combustion. These could cause global dimming if released into the atmosphere. Include soot and unburnt fuel.
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A chemical reaction between a fuel and oxygen to release energy (exothermic)
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Complete combustion
Combustion with enough for all the fuel to react. Produces carbon dioxide in fuels containing carbon.
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Incomplete combustion
Combustion where there is not enough oxygen available.Produces carbon monoxide and soot buring fuels containing carbon.
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Small carbon particles often as a result of being left over from combustion
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Global dimming
The theory that less sunlight is penetrating the atmosphere due to particulates being trapped, this causes global cooling.
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Global warming
Climate change caused by the greenhouse effect. greenhouses gases (e.g.CO2) which are trapped in the atmosphere allow UV rays through but emit IR radiation internally (heat is effectively reflected internally).
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Acid rain
Where rainwater in the atmosphere reacts with gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxides so becomes slightly acidic. This can damage statues and wildlife.
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A fuel produced from renewable natural living resources such as plant matter. Carbon neutral.
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A biofuel made to replace or partially replace diesel. Often made from vegetable oils.
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An alcohol used in drinks and as a fuel, produced from fermentation or from the hydration of ethene.
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Breaking down large hydrocarbons into smaller, more useful ones as fuels. Uses a hot catalyst.
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Bromine water
Used to test unsaturation such as alkenes including for use as vegetable oils. Turns from orange-brown to colourless.
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Long chains of monomers, so large molecules. Another name for plastics.
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A molecule such as alkenes that can join with other monomers to form a long chain polymer.
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The process of joining monomers together by opening their double bonds to form a polymer.
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Biodegradable plastics
Plastics which can break ip into smaller pieces as it is mixed with constarch. Plastic can not normally biodegrade.
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The process where ethene is reacted with steam in the prescence of a catalyst to produce ethanol. This adds an OH ion.
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The anaerobic respiration of yeast using glucose from sugar cane to produce ethanol.
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Vegetable oil
A type of oil which has been extracted and purified from plants. Can be from nuts or petals. Often used in food.
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A mixture of oil and water where the oil droplets are evenly spread througout the water. Used to create a more appealing texture.
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Molecules which allow suspension of oil droplets in water. Have a hydrophillic head and a hydrophobic tail
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The process where unsaturated oils are reacted with hydrogen with a nickel catalyst at 60°C to become saturated to increase their melting point
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Hydrogenated oil
An oil which has been hardened so has had hydrogen added. Solids at room temperature so are more useful.
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Continental drift
Wegener's theory of the relative movement of tectonic plates caused by convection currents in the mantle. Includes the idea that the continents used to be joined.
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The centre layers of the Earth's structure (inner and outer). The inner core is solid and very hot, about 3000km in diameter.
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Fluid layer of the Earth's structure between the core and the crust. About 2900km in thickness. Convection currents occur hear from radioactive processes in the core.
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The very thin layer of rocks, soil and water which covers the surface of the Earth. 5-50km thick, broken up into tectonic plates.
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Tectonic plates
Large sections of crust and upper mantle which can be moved relative distances by convection currents to form landforms such as mountains and ridges.
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Convection current
Circular movement within fluids such as in the mantle. Here it is heated from radioactive processes in the core and cooled by the lower temperature of the crust.
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A mountain built up by eruptions of lava, rocks and gas which burst through the surface, often near plate boundaries.
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A sudden movement of tectonic plates from pressure building up, causing the surface of the Earth in some areas to violently shake.
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'Primordial Soup' theory
The theory that life on Earth was first formed due to the interaction between hydrocarbons, ammonia and lightning.
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Fossil fuels
Fuels formed from over time due to high pressures and heat though sedimentation from plant matter. Oil, coal and natural gas.
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Card 2


One type of atom with a specific number of protons and certain properties.



Card 3


A table used to arrange elements into groups and by electronic structure.


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


A collumn on the periodic table which has elements with the same number of electrons on the outer shell


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


The letters which are used to uniquelly identify an element eg. O for Oxygen


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