chemistry atomic structure

What is an element?
Made up of only 1 type of atom.
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What is a compound?
2 or more different elements chemically bonded
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What is a mixture
Different substances that are not chemically joined together
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What is a molecule
group of 2 or more atoms joined together by covalent bonds.
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When do covalent bonds form?
When 2 non-metal atoms share a pair of electrons. The electrons involved are in the outer shells of the atoms.
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Molecules of the same element or compound always contain the same amount of ...
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What is a solvent?
The substance that does the dissolving. In a salt solution water is the solvent.
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What is a solute?
The substance that dissolves. In a salt solution the salt is a solute.
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What is a solution
When a solute is dissolved into a solvent
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What is filtration?
A method for separating an insoluble solid from a liquid. Like and and water where the sand will stay in the filtration paper.
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What is distillation?
Separation method used to separate a solvent from a solution. It uses the process of evaporation and then condensation.
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What is chromatography?
A method for separating dissolved substances from one another. Often used when the dissolved substances are coloured such as inks and food colouring.
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What is crystallisation?
The process of producing solid crystals from a solution by evaporating the solvent.
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What is the formula to find the Rf value?
Rf value = distance travelled by substance/ distance travelled by solvent
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What is solvent front?
How far the solvent travels.
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What is the process of when a solid turns to gas?
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What is condensation?
When gas turns to liquid
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What is the process of liquid to solid?
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gas to solid
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liquid to gas
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solid to liquid
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Which of the states can be compressed
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relative mass of proton
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relative charge of proton
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relative mass of neutron
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relative charge of neutron
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relative charge of electron
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number of protons is the same as the number of
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The bottom number is the
Atomic number
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The atomic number shows the number
of protons
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The top number is the
relative atomic mass
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The relative atomic mass is
The total number of protons and neutrons
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On the periodic table the group number is the
top number
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The group number shows
The number of electrons in the outer shells
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The rows on the periodic table are called
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What do periods show
how many electron shells an atom has
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what is an ion
charged particles formed when an atom/group of atoms loses or gains atoms.
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If an ion loses an atom it becomes
positively charged
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If an ion gains an atom it becomes
Negatively charged
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What is an isotope
atoms of an element with the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of neutrons
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isotopes have the same
atomic number
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isotopes have different
mass number
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In chromatoghraphy why should u make sure the ink spot doesnt touch the solvent
so it dont get washed away
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what methods can u use to remove a soluable product from a solution
evaporation or crystalisation
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number or protons is equal to the the number of...
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the nucleus is abt ... of an atom
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what does the atomic number show?
number of proton
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how many elements are there?
over 100
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how to work out number of protons?
atomic number
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how to work out number of neutrons
mass number - atomic number
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an isotope is named after...
the element and mass number of its atoms
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why do all isotopes of an atom have identical properties?
number of electrons determine chemical properties
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what is relative atomic mass?
an average that takes account of the abundance of the isotopes of the element
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how to calculate relative atomic mass?
sum of (abundance times mass number)/sum of abundances
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which elements have a small two to the right?
Iodine, bromine, chlorine, fleurine, oxygen ,nitrogen, hydrogen
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how do compounds form? metal and non metal
ionic bonding-metal atoms loses electrons to form positive ions and non metal atom gains electrons to form negative ions so the opposite charge means that they are strongly attracted to each other
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how to compounds form? non metals
covalent bonding-atoms share electrons with other atoms
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how to separate compounds?
by chemical reactions
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what can u show using chemical equations?
what happens in a chemical reaction
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what happens during a chemical reaction?
bonds between atoms break and the atoms change places-rearrange themselves to form diff chemicals aka products
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an example of a formula?
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when balanced correctly what can symbol equations shoe?
the ratio of amounts of substances involved in the reaction
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who described atoms as solid spheres
John Dalton
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who disaproved of John daltons theory and invented the plum pudding model
JJ Thompson
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JJ thompsons measurements concluded that atoms contain...
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who came up with the idea of a postively charged nucleus at the centre of an atom where most mass is concentrated?
Ernest Rutherford
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What did Niel Bohr's nuclear model of the atom suggest?
That all electrons were contained in shells that were a fixed distance frm the nucleus
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Further experiments by ... gave the conclusion that the nucleus could be divided into smaller particles.
Rutherford and others
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Who carried out the experiment which carried evidence for neutrons
James Chadwick
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What happened in the alpha particle experiment?
They fired positively charged alpha particles at an extremely thin sheet of gold. Frm the plum pudding model they expected the particles to pass straight through or be slightly deflected bc the positive charge of each atom was thought to be spread out how
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Properties of a mixture are
a mixture of the properties of the separate parts- chemical properties of a substance isn't affected by it being a part of a mixture
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is a compound?


2 or more different elements chemically bonded

Card 3


What is a mixture


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Card 4


What is a molecule


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Card 5


When do covalent bonds form?


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