Chem N

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  • Created by: Carys
  • Created on: 31-10-13 12:40
Mass Number`
no. of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of one atom
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Average mass of all the isotopes of an element when compared to the mas of c12 which has a mass of exactly 12
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same no.of protons diff neutrons
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mass spectronomy stages
Vapourisation, Ionisation, Acceleration, Deflection, Detection
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Highest energy levels are...
further away from the nucleus
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First ionisation energy
energy needed to remove one electron in each atom of one mole of gaseous atoms to produce one mole of gaseous 1+ ions
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Second ionisation energy
Energy needed to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous ions to form one mole of gaseous 2+ ions
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- ions
Nitrate (NO3) Hydroxide (OH) Nitrite (NO2) Hydrogen Carbonate (HCO3)
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2- ions
Carbonate (CO3) Chromate (Cr2O3) Sulphate (SO4) Sulphite (SO3)
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3- Ions
Phosphate (PO4)
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+ ion
Ammonium (NH4)
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Transition elements charge?
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Factors that affect ionisation energy?
Distance, Charge, Shielding
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General trend in ionisation energies across a period? Why?
Increase in nuclear charge
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How Distance, Charge, Shielding changes across a period
Distance - no effect, Charge - increases, Shielding - no change
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Why oxygen has lower ionisation energy?
2p4 on end means one pair with opposite spins which repel eachother
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Ionic bonding - m+b, electricity, which gains and loses?
Conducts and high m+b points, metals lose, non metals gain
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Covalent bonding - m+b, electricity
Doesnt conduct (no charge) and low m+b points
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Dative covalent bond
One of the atoms supplies both the shared electrons to the covalent bond
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Lone pair
An outer shell pair of electrons that isnt involved in chemically bonding
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A measure of the attraction of the bonded atom for the pair of electrons in a covalent bond
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Permanent dipole, number, negative charge where?
charge difference across a bond due to the elecrtomagnetivity, must be greater than 0.4, negative on the atom with largest electromagnetivity
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Polar Molecule
has an overall dipole
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Electromagnetivity increases on the periodic table..
towards the top and right
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permanent dipole-dipole forces
permanent dipole of a molecule attraxcts the permanent dipole of another to form a weak permanent dipole-dipole force
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Van Der waals forces (induced)
weak intermolecular attractions between temporary dipoles in neighbouring molecules
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Cause of induced dipole
Movement of electrons in shells which unbalances the distribution which leads to an induced dipole which induces them in other molecules
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Hydrogen bond
strongest intermolecular force, H boded to either O, N of F. Lone pair is needed
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Properties of water
Ice is less dense (open lattice) high m+b (H bonds add extra forces) surface tension ( forms a sort of skin)
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Linear - angle, pairs
180, 2 bonding pairs
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Trigonal Planar - angle, pairs
120, 3 bonding pairs
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Tetrahedral - angle, pairs
109.5, 4 bonding pairs
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Pyramidal - angle, pairs
107, 3 bonding pairs, 1 lone pair
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V shaped - angle, pairs
104.5, 2 bonding pairs, 2 lone pairs
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Octahedral - angle, pairs
90, 6 bonding pirs
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Giant metallic lattice properties
high m+b, conducts and malleable+ductile
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Giant covalent properties
High n+b, non conductor
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Card 2




Average mass of all the isotopes of an element when compared to the mas of c12 which has a mass of exactly 12

Card 3




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Card 4


mass spectronomy stages


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Card 5


Highest energy levels are...


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