Chapter 5: Transport in Animals

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What is the definition of 'mass flow'?
The movement of a liquid through a system of tubes in one direction.
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What is the Bohr shift?
The decrease in the affinity for haemoglobin for oxygen in the presence of carbon dioxide.
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What is carbonic anhydrase used for?
It is an enzyme in red blood cells which catalyses the reaction of carbon dioxide with water to from carbonic acid.
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What is the difference between open and closed circulatory systems?
In closed the blood is always contained within the vessels whereas in open it is not.
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What does the coronary artery do?
It is one of the arteries that branches off from the aorta and supplies oxygenated blood to the heart muscle.
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What is the difference between single and double circulatory systems?
In double there are two circuits (systemic and pulmonary), the blood returns to the heart after being oxygenated and flowing to other parts of the body. In single, the blood flows without first returning to the heart.
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What is the subclavian vein?
The large vein that carries blood back from the arms to the heart, in which lymph flows from the lymphocytes.
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What is meant by myogenic?
A property of the cardiac muscle, its contraction is initiated within the muscle itself not by impulses from a nerve.
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If the blood is carried from the heart to all parts of the body other than the lungs, what type of circulation is this?
Systemic.
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What is a venule?
A small vein which carries blood between capillaries and veins.
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There are two pumps working in series - the right side of the heart pumps __ blood to the lung in the ___ circulation; the left side pumps ___ blood to the rest of the body through the __ circulation.
Deoxygenated; pulmonary; oxygenated; systemic
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What is stroke volume?
The volume of blood ejected from each ventricle during one beat. At rest it may be 70cm (cubed). Cardiac output is the volume of blood ejected from each of the ventricles during 1 min.
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How do you calculate cardiac output?
cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate
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Define 'cardiac cycle'
It describes the sequence of changes that occurs in the heart during one heart beat.
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Why are the ventricles thicker than the atria?
Because they generate greater pressures.
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The ___ ventricle is thicker than the ___ ventricle because it has to pump blood into the systemic circulation that has arteries parallel.
Left; right
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The right atrium receives blood from the body through the ___ ___ and pumps blood to the ___ ventricle
Vena cava; right
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The left ventricle receives blood from the ___ atrium and pumps blood to the body through the ___.
Left; aorta
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How does emphysema occur?
Low blood pressure in the pulmonary circulation ensures that fluid doesn't leak out of the pulmonary capillaries, causing fluid to accumulate inthe alveoli. Fluid accumulation occurs in people,where the right ventricle generates higher bp than normal
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Describe the features on SAN
It is a special region of muscle cells that emits electrical pulses similar to those that pass along nerve cells.
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How are the electrical impulses stopped from reaching the ventricles?
By the bundle of His, a ring of fibrous tissue.
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Im pulses are relayed by the ___ along Purkyne tissue, which conducts to muscles at the base of the ventricles upwards towards the arteries.
AVN
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Electrical pulses are also described as waves of ______.
Depolarisation
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The blood pressure in the atria and the ventricles falls to near to _ kPa during each cycle because there are times when there is little blood in these chambers
0kPa
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Why does the pressure in the Aorta not fall below about 10kPa?
Because its wall stretches as blood surges into it from the left ventricle and then recoils to maintain the blood pressure and to keep blood flowing.
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When the pressure in the ventricle is ____ than that in the aorta, the semilunar valves opens and blood flows from the ventricles to the aorta.
Greater
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What are the components of artery walls?
They are by endothelium and the rest of the wall contains smooth muscle, elastic fibres and collagen.
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What is the direction of blood flow in the artery?
Heart to organ and tissues
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Outline the function of an artery.
Elastic fibres recoil to maintain high pressure in arteries to overcome resistance of the circulation system
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Outline the function of a vein.
To return blood to the heart - assisted by squeezing action of surrounding muscles which help to push blood towards heart.
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What happens in Atrial Systole?
The part of the cardiac cycle in which muscles in the walls of the atria contract.
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What happens in Ventricular Diastole?
The stage in the cardiac cycle in which the muscles in the walls of the ventricles relax.
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What happens in Ventricular Systole?
The stage of the cardiac cycle in which the muscles in the walls of the ventricles contract.
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The largest arteries divide into smaller ones and these continue to divide to form much smaller vessels called ____.
Arterioles.
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What is an electrocardiogram do?
Records the hearts electrical activity.
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What are the exchanges that occur as blood flows through the capillaries?
Oxygen diffusing out of blood and into tissue fluid. CO2 diffusing from tissue fluid into the blood. H2O and dissolved substances, such as glucose and amino acids, being forced out by the pressure of the blood.
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Water and substances that are forced out by high pressure are ___ from the blood. As blood flows through the capillaries its pressure decreases, which makes it possible for water to drain back into the blood plasma by ___.
Filtered; Osmosis
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Why does the blood plasma have a lower water potential than the tissue fluid?
Because the blood contains solutes, such as acumen, large protein molecule that rarely leaves the blood.
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What is the role of lymph?
As a drainage system. Tissue fluid flows into the lymphatic vessels and then flows slowly towards large lymphatic vessels that empty into the blood near the heart. At intervals along the lymphatic vessels are lymph nodes, containing lymphocytes.
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Neutrophils are most common type of ____ in the blood, compromising approx. 70% of all white blood cells.
Phagocyte
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Why does blood carry much more carbon dioxide than water?
Because there is a fast acting enzyme inside red blood cells called carbonic anhydrase.
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What is the role of carbonic anhydrase?
It catalyses the formation of carbonic acid, which immediately dissociates to from hydrogen bonds and hydrogen carbonate ions.
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The hydrogen carbonate ions diffuse out of the red blood cells into the ___.
Plasma
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What is the Bohr Shift?
The decrease in the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen in the presence of carbon dioxide.
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Some carbon dioxide that diffuses into the erythrocytes combines directly with haemoglobin, forming a compound called _____, in which 10% of carbon dioxide is transported in this form.
Carbaminohaemoglobin
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Fetal haemoglobin is said to have a ____ affinity for oxygen than adult haemoglobin.
Higher
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What is the Bohr shift?

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The decrease in the affinity for haemoglobin for oxygen in the presence of carbon dioxide.

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What is carbonic anhydrase used for?

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Card 4

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What is the difference between open and closed circulatory systems?

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What does the coronary artery do?

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