Chapter 2.1 Eukaryotic cells

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  • Chapter 2.1 Membrane-bound organelles
    • Organelles within eukaryotic cells are membrane bound to keep each organelle seperate.
    • Types of eukaryotic cells include animal, fungal and protocist cells.
    • Nucleus: It is surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope which separates the contents of the nucleus from the rest of the cell.
      • it is the control centre of the cell, stores the organism genome, transmits genetic information,  and provides instructions for protein synthesis.
    • Nucleolus: It does not have a membrane around it and contains RNA. This is where ribosomes are made.
    • Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER): A system of membranes containing fluid-filled cavities. It is coated with ribosomes. It works as an intracellular transport system which transports substances from one area of the cell to another.
      • It provides a large surface are for ribosomes to assemble amino acids into proteins.The proteins are transported to the Golgi apparatus for modification and packaging.
    • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER): its is a system of membranes containing fluid-filled cavities. There are no ribosomes on its surface.
      • It contains enzymes that catalyse reactions involved with lipid metabolism and isinvolved with absorption, synthesis and transport of lipids.
    • Golgi apparatus: It consists of a stack of membrane-bound flattened sacs. Secretory vesicles bring materials that are pinched off and then: stored in the cell or moved to the plasma membrane or exported outside the cell
    • Mitochondria: It is surrounded by two membranes with a fluid-filled space between them. It is where aerobic respiration takes place. They are self-replicating so can be made if the cell needs more energy
    • Ribosomes: They are small spherical organelles made of ribosomal RNA. They are made in the nucleolus as two separate sub units which pass through the nuclear envelope into the cell cytoplasm. They are free in the cytoplasm
    • Lysosomes: They are small bags formed from the golgi apparatus which surrounded by a single membrane. The contain hydrolytic (digestive) enzymes which are kept separate from the rest of the cell.
    • Plasma membrane: it regulate the movement of substances into and out of the cell and is able to respond to changes in the environment via receptor
    • Cilia and undulipodia: They are protrusions from the cell and are surrounded by the cell surface membrane. They contain microtubules.The epithelial cells lining your air ways have hundreds of cilia .
      • -the only human cell to have an undulipodium (longer cilia) is a sperm cell


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