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Chapter 5: transport in animals

LO: explain the need for transport systems in multicellur animals in terms of size, activity and surface
area to volume ratio.

Explain the meaning of the terms single and double circulatory systems with reference to the
circulatory systems of fish and mammals.

Large animal transport…

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Mammals on the other hand have a double circulatory system. Which are two separate circuits. Which
are joined up by the heart. One circuit carries blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen, this is the
pulmonary circulation. The other circuit carries oxygen and nutrients around the body to the…

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The heart can increase the pressure of the blood after it has passed through the lungs so
blood flows quickly to the body tissues.
The systemic circulation can carry blood at a higher pressure than the pulmonary circulation.
The blood pressure must not be too high in the pulmonary circulation;…

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Arteries: carry blood from the heart to other places.

Internal features of the heart: the heart is
divided into four chambers. The two top
are the atria (atrium) theses receive blood
from major veins. The bottom two is the
ventricles.

Deoxygenated blood goes through the
superior vena cava and inferior…

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Chapter 7: the cardiac cycle

LO: describe the cardiac cycle with reference to the action of the valves in the heart.




Sequence of contraction: it is important for the heart to maintain a continuous sequence. The
sequence is involved in one heart beat which is called the cardiac cycle. This…

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